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Voice of the Church 
Volume 73, Number 11 
November 1970 

On the Cover 

Since November 1897, the Era 
has been published every 
month — 877 issues. During 
those 73 years, only four is- 
sues ever carried duplicate 
covers: a favorite painting of 
President Heber J. Grant in 
November 1936 (on his 80th 
birthday) and May 1945 (at 
his death), and a painting of 
President George Albert Smith 
published on the cover in 
April 1950 (his 80th birthday) 
and May 1951 (at his death). 
Now, as the Era celebrates 73 
years of continuous publica- 
tion, this month's cover fea- 
tures a representative selection 
of covers from the past. Note 
how the cover size, reflecting 
the magazine size, has also 
varied through the years. (See 
page 72 for related feature, 
"Covers from the Past") 

Special Features 

2 The Best of an Era, Jay M. Todd 

3 Exploring the Universe, Franklin 
S. Harris, Jr. 

4 On Calling and Releasing, Presi- 
dent Joseph F. Smith 

5 To Those Who Teach Our Chil- 
dren, President Heber J. Grant 

7 "Give the Lord a Chance," Presi- 
dent George Albert Smith 

8 Courtship and Marriage, President 
David 0. McKay 

10 The Old and the New Magazines, 

President Joseph Fielding Smith 
12 The Improvement Era — The Voice 

of the Church (1897-1970), Doyle 

L. Green 
22 Joseph Smith — An Appreciation, 

President B. H. Roberts 
28 Our Lord the Christ, Elder James 

E. Talmage 
43 What Joseph Smith Did for the 

Womanhood of the Church, Susa 

Young Gates 

48 On This Thanksgiving Day, Flor- 
ence B. Pinnock 

49 Winter Salads, Burl Shephard 

50 Does the Church Have a Monop- 
oly of Truth? Elder John A. 

54 Brigham Young in Nauvoo, 1841, 

Preston Nibley 
58 Home Evening, Elder Joseph F. 

62 Booker T. Washington's Views of 

the Mormons 
64 The Citadel Within, Elder Hugh B. 

70 "Thy Speech Bewrayeth Thee," 

Albert L Zobell, Jr. 
72 Covers from the Past, Ralph 

81 Forgetting as a Fine Art: The 

Crown of Individuality, William 

George Jordan 
83 The Political Responsibility of 

Latter-day Saints, Elder Melvin J. 

86 The Mormon Contribution to Con- 
temporary Religion, Dr. G. Homer 

90 The Fruits of Religious Living in 

This Life, Dr. Lowell L. Bennion 

94 Woman's Place in the Forward 

March of the Church, Marba C. 

98 Pioneer Humor, Judge Daniel Har 

101 Who Is Youth? President J. Reu 

ben Clark, Jr. 
106 Songs and Music of the Latter-day 

Saints, Evan Stephens 
108 The Philosophers on Conduct, Dr. 

Milton Bennion 
110 Moroni the Lonely: The Story of 

the Writing of the Title Page to 

the Book of Mormon, Dr. Sidney 

B. Sperry 
115 The Book of Mormon as a Mirror 

of the East, Dr. Hugh Nibley 

Regular Features 

113 The Church Moves On 
126 End of an Era 
52, 69, 125 

Spoken Word, Richard L. Evans 

Era of Youth 

Marion D. Hanks 
and Elaine Cannon, Editors 
Ten Years of Era of Youth 
The Importance of Being Alma, 
Robert Spencer 

Worth Everything, Marion D. 

Henry Eyring Speaks to Youth 
How to Withstand Social Pres- 
sure, Elaine Cannon 
Bind on Thy Sandals, Jeff Holland 
With Trust in God 
Christmas Is for Sharing, Richard 

An African Adventure, Rendell N. 

There Is Beauty All Around, Elaine 










Fiction and Poetry 


The Boy and the Web, Nora Ann 

Gentile Gibbs' Boy, Elsie Cham 
berlain Carroll 
21, 40, 46, 85, 96, 97, 104, 

Joseph Fielding Smith, Richard L. Evans, Editors; Doyle L. Green. Managing Editor; Jay M. Todd, Assistant Managing Editor; Eleanor 
Knowles, Copy Editor; Mabel Jones Gabbott, Manuscript Editor; Albert L. Zobell, Jr., Research Editor; G. Homer Durham, Hugh 
Nibley, Albert L. Payne, Truman G. Madsen, Elliott Landau, Leonard Arrington, Contributing Editors; Marion D. Hanks, Era of Youth 
Editor; Elaine Cannon, Era of Youth Associate Editor; Ralph Reynolds, Art Director; Norman Price, Staff Artist. 
W. Jay Eldredge, General Manager; Florence S. Jacobsen, Associate General Manager; Verl F, Scott, Business Manager; A. Glen 
Snarr, Circulation Manager; S. Glenn Smith, Advertising Representative. 

©General Superintendent, Young Men's Mutual Improvement Association of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1970; 
published by the Mutual Improvement Associations. All rights reserved. 

Entered at the Post Office. Salt Lake City, Utah, as second class matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided 
for in section 1103, Act of October 1917, authorized July 2, 1918. 

Subscription price $4.00 a year, in advance; 35c single copy except special issues. Thirty da>s' notice required 'for change of 
address. When ordering a change, please include your address label from a recent issue of the magazine; address changes can- 
not be made unless the old address, as well as the new one, is included. 

The Improvement Era welcomes contributions but is not responsible for unsolicited manuscripts. Manuscripts must be accom- 
panied by sufficient postage for delivery and return. Payment is made upon acceptance. Advertising: The Era is pleased to carry 
advertisements of interest to readers, but doing so does not imply Church endorsement of the advertiser or his product. 

Official organ of the Priesthood Quorums. Mutual Improvement Associations, Home Teaching Committee, Music 
Committee, Church School System, and other agencies of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 

The Improvement Era, 79 South State, Salt Lake City, Utah 84111 

Era, November 1970 1 

The Best of an Era 

By Jay M. Todd 

Assistant Managing Editor 

• Since 1956 the Era has published for its readers a of the Young Men's Mutual Improvement Association 

special November anniversary issue. This year the of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 

editorial staff decided to present in this final Era we sincerely hope its merits will fully satisfy the best 

anniversary issue the best of an era— the best of the and truest expectations awakened by the announce- 

Era. Of course, it was understood that no single issue ment and promise of its advent. Its real merits will 

could possibly publish the best of the past 73 years, become known and therefore, we trust, sincerely appre- 

That couldn't be done even in five years of reprinting— dated. In proportion to its being sought for and care- 

and we probably could attempt only a fair approxima- fully read by its patrons, the benefits resulting from 

tion if we reprinted for a complete decade. I say its publication will bring joy and satisfaction to the 

this because, after spending four 13-hour days examin- hearts and homes of many thousands of earnest, truth- 

ing the past 73 volumes (and even then I examined loving, and progressive people. They will, therefore, 

primarily only those things staff members had culled hail with pleasure the advent of the Era as an organ 

for our perusal), I am almost overwhelmed by the devoted to the uplifting of the youth of Zion, and 

greatness, the goodness, the relevance, the soundness, therefore an aid to themselves in their efforts to edu- 

the consistent inspiration that have blessed the Church cate and rear their children to walk in righteous and 

these past 73 years through the Improvement Era. honorable paths. 

Only a brief and highly selective sampling of our "The mission of the Era, however, is not to be con- 
73,000 pages can be presented in this issue. To give a fined to the limits of those only who are enlightened 
flavor of the past, "Exploring the Universe" is imme- by a knowledge of the truth and who already possess 
diately to the right— reminding many readers that for the love of God in their hearts. It is also intended to 
many years this popular column was the first editorial reach the thoughtless and wayward, those who are 
feature in the magazine. prone to evil, and all, wheresoever they are found, 
Next we reprint an Editor's Page from each Presi- who possibly may or can be reached and convinced 
dent of the Church who served as editor of the Era, by the potency of its reasoning, the clearness of its 
with a new and important comment by President facts, and the witness of its spirit, together with the 
Joseph Fielding Smith. Father's blessing, and thereby be brought out of dark- 
Following these comes a personal glimpse by Doyle ness and the shadows of the valley of death into the 
L. Green into what it has been like to be managing marvelous light and liberty of divine truth, 
editor for over 22 years. Thereafter, except for "The "It is hoped, too, that the Era will also find its way 
Church Moves On," nearly everything in the magazine into the various missionary fields abroad, as well as 
is from the past: articles, poetry (using a poetry page at home, and be an aid to the elders of the Church in 
as was often done years ago), fiction, the Spoken their advocacy and defense of the principles of the 
Word, the color section on covers, and representative gospel, 

articles from the Era of Youth from its short but "We aim not at contention, but to defend the cause 

meteoric decade since its birth in July 1960. of truth. We respectfully ask to be heard, and 

Reprinting from the past would not be complete, intend, so far as we can, to occupy a position worthy 

however, without calling to mind the magazine's pur- of the respect and confidence of all who love God 

poses stated in that first editorial in November 1897. and his righteous cause. With such purposes in view 

Readers may judge for themselves how well the we confidently look for the favor and approval of all 

magazine has accomplished its purposes: right thinking and truth-loving people, and especially 

for the cooperation of the young men of Zion, in whose 

"With this initial number the Improvement Era starts interest and cause we launch our barque upon the 

hopefully out upon its mission. As the accepted organ broad sea of mutual improvement." O 


Dr. Franklin S. 
Harris, physicist and 

the Universe 

November J 935 
December 1966 

By Dr. Franklin 
S. Harris, Jr. 

A new type radio tube without a fila- 
ment and having potentialities in televi- 
sion and lightweight radio transmitters 
for aircraft was shown recently for the 
first time publicly by Philo T. Farns- 
worth, a former Utah boy, now an 
engineer of Philadelphia. (June 1936) 

That color photography is within the 
grasp of the amateur photographer is 
the belief of Frederick Eugene Ives, in- 
ventor who made the halftone and color 
reproduction available to newspapers 
and magazines. (June 1936) 

Television is closer to the public as a 
result of a four months' test of broad- 
casting from the Empire State Building, 
New York City, at a cost of a million 
dollars. Images are now in white and 
black on a screen seven and a half by 
ten inches, and though satisfactory 
means of sending and receiving the 
images have been developed, sets for 
the general public have not yet been 
designed. (February 1937) 

Weather reports by telephone can be 
obtained in New York City. The latest 
weather prediction can be heard from 
a voice recorded on magnetic tape. 
(August 1941) 

For cold nights a new lightweight blan- 
ket can give just the right warmth. 
It is heated electrically through spe- 
cially insulated wires at low voltage, 
and any constant temperature desired 
is thermostatically maintained. (Decem- 
ber 1937) 

Penicillin, a new drug produced in soil 
mold, is about one hundred times as 
effective as sulfanilamide for combating 
infection, and far less toxic. It has not 
yet been possible, however, to produce 
it in large enough quantities for general 
use. (September 1943) 

Putting a 2 percent solution of sodium 
fluoride on the teeth of school children 
reduced by 40 percent the decay dur- 
ing the following year in some recent 
tests. (February 1944) 

A powerful new insecticide, called 
"dithane" [DDT] as short for a long 
chemical name, and nonpoisonous to 
human beings, has been discovered 
and tested by a group of Rohm and 
Haas scientists. (December 1944) 

From coal, air, and water, a new syn- 
thetic fiber material called "nylon" has 
been developed which promises to be 
important industrially and commer- 
cially. (February 1939) 

How large a rocket ship would be 
necesary for a man to travel to the 
moon and return, by the firing of 
rockets? A recent calculation estimates 
that under the most favorable circum- 
stances the spaceship would have to 
be about as massive as Mount Everest. 
(April 1942) 

Ultimately we may expect to have tires 
which will run one hundred thousand 
miles, be practically blowout proof, 
and have greater nonskid properties. 
(November 1945) 

Patents have been given for such un- 
usual devices as an automatic egg- 
numbering gadget to be worn by the 
hen, a traveling grandstand for race- 
tracks that follows the horses around 
the course, and a bicycle seat that 
pumps up and down at each bump in 
the road, furnishing compressed air 
to run the bicycle. (December 1940) 

An automobile passenger safety belt 
has been patented by a Brazilian. The 
belt is placed around passengers in the 
car and prevents their being thrown out 
in the event of a collision. The belt 
moves out of the way when not in use. 
(February 1942) 

Man does not rate very well with 
mosquitoes, which prefer horses and 
cattle about six times as well and pigs 
three times as well, Federal entomolo- 
gists report. Man is just a little ahead 
of chickens and cats as a preferred 
source of the blood meal which most 
of the biting mosquitoes require be- 
fore they can begin depositing eggs. 
(November 1940) 

The splitting apart of a four-line high- 
way in New Jersey, to make two 
roadways separated by a dividing center 
strip, resulted in a reduction of fatal 
accidents of over 83 percent. (May 

Recently a leg was successfully trans- 
planted from one rat to another. This 
is the first time this has been accom- 
plished with higher animals without loss 
of the use of the muscles. (March 

Fluorescent lamps are now developed 
to a stage where they may greatly 
influence home and commercial light- 
ing. In some cases there is as much 
as 120 times the illumination, for the 
current consumed, as filament lamps 
of the same color, with only a fraction 
of the heat. (July 1939) 

Era, November 1970 3 

On Calling 
and Releasing 

By President Joseph F. Smith 

Volume 10, July 1907 

• All Latter-day Saints certainly recognize that the 
Church is greater than any man, and must be con- 
sidered in all cases in preference to individuals. Men 
pass away, but the Church, the cause of God, remains 
permanently. Loyalty to the Church is one of the 
characteristics of the Latter-day Saints. They do not 

President Joseph F. 
Smith, sixth 
President of the 
Church, 1901-1918 

count too great any necessary sacrifice when rendered 
for its benefit. Every good Latter-day Saint is willing 
to do his share toward its advancement. Hundreds of 
missionaries are called each year; they go out into the 
world for two, three, or more years, occupy positions 
in their various fields of labor, and when their work 
is completed, their places are filled by new men, and 
they return home to take up other work and duties. 
They do not feel that their release, when they have 
done faithful work, is at all unwelcome or undesirable. 

At home, brethren are called to labor for the Church, 
in the bishoprics, as presidents of stakes, and in other 
offices; and in like manner when their work is com- 
pleted, or the interest of the Church demands it, these 
may be released and others appointed to their places. 
It is no more a disgrace for any man who has honorably 
finished his work in any of these or other callings to 
be superseded than it is to be released from foreign 
missions. When men grow old and become physically 
incapacitated for the arduous labors that are required 
of certain officers in the Church, younger men with 
the vigor of strong manhood should be selected to take 
their places; men who are more capable, physically, 
to stand the strain of the work. It is certainly no 
disgrace, dishonor, or a letting down, for those who 
have occupied the positions heretofore to be thus 

.Our brethren are called to positions by the presiding 
authorities inspired by the Spirit. Men do not ask or 

seek for place or position. Neither should there be any 
such thing as resigning a call in the priesthood. All 
hold themselves in readiness to be called or released, 
as the case may be, as seemeth good to the best inter- 
ests of the Church, by the brethren whose duty it is 
to look after these matters. Church positions are not 
resigned as are business places or political offices; 
resignations are not recognized in the Church, and 
therefore no man who has received a call to the 
priesthood is expected to resign; but, on the other 
hand, he should and does, if in possession of the right 
spirit, always feel that he is willing and ready to be 
honorably released if the best interests of the Church 
demand it. He should feel that his office and calling 
are in the hands of the authorities, and make such 
feelings known to his brethren. In case he desires to 
quit for personal reasons, or because he thinks the best 
interests of the office would be subserved by his quit- 
ting, he should submit his desires to the authorities and 
let those who placed the responsibility upon him know 
thereof, so that they may release him from that re- 
sponsibility, in case their wisdom and the inspiration 
of the Lord should so direct. To do otherwise would 
be nothing less than unwisely, or perhaps wilfully, 

blocking the progress of the Church. In these matters, 
those who are placed in authority will and must have 
proper consideration and regard for men and for the 
welfare of the Church, whose interests are paramount. 
This matter is of considerable importance. Some 
people seem to believe that if an office is once ob- 
tained in the Church, it must be held for life, and that 
if the incumbent is released, it is an indignity, and 
lessens his value and reputation. This is entirely an 
erroneous idea. And officers should learn that those 
who ordain and appoint have the right to remove or 
release, and in so doing, no indignity, disgrace, nor 
dishonor attaches to the action. All men in the Church 
holding positions should rather feel that if the work 
can be done better than it is being done by them, and 
the presiding brethren so consider, they are always 
willing to be released. The right and wisdom of the 
presiding authorities both in calling and releasing 
should be recognized. It is, as stated, no more a dis- 
grace, a dishonor, or a letting down to be thus hon- 
orably liberated from any office in the Church, than 
it is to be relieved from the presidency of a mission, or 
from acting as a missionary in the world, or from a 
bishopric, or any position among the people. O 

Volume 42, March 1939 


JjoJ/wajl (OfwJ&acL 


To Those Who 
Teach Our Children 

By President Heber J. Grant 

President Heber J. 
Grant, seventh 
President of the 
Church, 1918-1945 

• There is no labor in which any of us can be engaged 
that is more acceptable in the sight of our Heavenly 
Father than laboring for the children in the Church 
of Jesus Christ. There is no question but that impres- 
sions made upon the minds of little innocent children 
and young boys and girls have a more lasting effect 
upon their future lives than impressions made at 

any other time. It is like writing, figuratively speak- 
ing, upon a white piece of paper with nothing on it 
to obscure or confuse what you may write. 

There are many who have made a wonderful record 
in the battle of life even after they have done things 
in their youth that were not pleasing in the sight of 
our Heavenly Father or for their own good; but it is 

Era, November 1970 5 

far better if it is possible for us to start the children We may think that the impressions we make may 

out in the battle of life with nothing recorded on the not be lasting, but I can assure you they are. I am 

pages of their years except good deeds and faith-pro- stire that a testimony borne by a teacher to little 

moting thoughts. There is a saying that "as the twig children, under the inspiration of the living God, is a 

is bent the tree is inclined." You who teach our chil- difficult thing for them to forget, 

dren are engaged in the labor of bending the twig. I shall be grateful always to Eliza R. Snow, second 

We find recorded in the Doctrine and Covenants only to my mother, for the many wonderful things that 

that if we as parents do not teach our children faith in she told me as a little boy when I used to run errands, 

the Lord Jesus Christ— teach them to pray and to walk or come up to the Lion House to deliver a message to 

uprightly before the Lord— before they are eight years "Aunt Eliza," as I always called her from my earliest 

of age, the sin shall be upon the heads of the parents, recollection. She was sure to ask me to sit down a 

The teachers of our children are assisting parents in few minutes and then she would talk to me. She told 

shaping the lives of their children. Great is their re- me scores and scores of faith-promoting incidents in 

sponsibility, also, and their accountability, for all that her life in Nauvoo when she was there as a girl with 

they teach. my mother, and incidents in the life of the Prophet 

It is of very great importance from the time children Joseph Smith, that have been of value to me. She 

come to us in the Sunday Schools, in the Primary Asso- inspired me with a determination to live a life that 

ciation, in the Mutual Improvement Associations, and would be worthy of my mother and my father, 

in the Church seminaries that impressions for good I remember vividly also the wonderful teachings to 

shall be made upon their minds. The feeling of grati- me of the late Erastus Snow. Although he lived three 

tude and thanksgiving that I have in my heart to the hundred and fifty miles from Salt Lake City, seldom if 

teachers that I had as a child in the 13th Ward ever did he come to a conference in April or October, 

Sunday School will last, I am sure, through time and or come here on some special mission, that he did not 

all eternity. visit my mothers home and inquire how we were 

There is no dividend that any human being can draw getting along, inquire of me whether I was attending 

from bonds or stocks, or anything in the wealth of to my duties, what I was doing, and the kind of com- 

the world, that compares with the knowledge in one's pany I was keeping. I shall never, while I live, and 

heart that he or she has been an instrument in the when I go beyond the grave, get over being grateful 

hands of God of shaping some life for good; and I can for the wonderful testimonies and the wonderful 

promise the righteous teachers of our youth that as fatherly advice of that man to me. 

the years come and go they will gather dividends of Each and every one of our teachers has the oppor- 

thanks and gratitude from the children whose lives tunity and the power, under the inspiration of the 

they have been the instruments, in the hands of God, Spirit of God, to make an impression upon the hearts 

of shaping for good. and souls of little innocent children and young boys 

I know that many times I have poured out the grati- and girls who are starting out in the battle of life. I 

tude of my heart to Hamilton G. Park, who was the pray with all the fervor of my soul that God will help 

teacher of my Sunday School class in my boyhood and you in your labors, and I can promise you that he will 

young manhood days. I shall never get over thanking help you. The important thing for you is to have a 

this man for the wonderful impression for good that love of your work and to. do your work under the 

he made upon me and for the remarkable testimonies inspiration of the Spirit of the living God. That is 

he bore in our classes, telling his experiences as a mis- the whole difference between the Church of Jesus 

sionary, and the blessings and power of God that Christ and the people of the world. They have the 

attended him while proclaiming the gospel on two letter of the gospel; they are teaching the Bible just 

missions to his native country, Scotland. as diligently and many of them believe in it as strongly 

I look forward with the keenest pleasure to meeting and try to live up to its precepts just as well as we 
in the hereafter Hamilton G. Park, George Goddard, do; but the Spirit of the living God they do not have. 
Bishop Nelson Empey. Bishop Edwin D. Woolley, Why? Because they haven't the power of the priest- 
Bishop Millen Atwood, and others who made an im- hood, and because they have not accepted the gospel 
pression for good upon my mind and heart as a boy. as we have. 

I could mention scores of others to whom I am in- May God bless every teacher that he may grow in 

deb ted. I shall be grateful throughout all the ages of the light and knowledge of the gospel and in the power 

eternity to those men for the impression that they and spirit of it, and have the capacity and ability to 

made upon me. communicate it to those whom he teaches. O 

President George 
Albert Smith, eighth 
President of the 
Church, 1945-1951 

"Give the Lord 
a Chance" 


Volume 49, July 1946 

D»a*,- t p. 

By President George Albert Smith 

• I remember one day I was impressed to say to a 
missionary who was going to a certain town where 
they would not let us hold street meetings : 

"Now remember, give the Lord a chance. You are 
going to ask a favor. Give the Lord a chance. Ask 
him to open the way." 

The young man went to that city, went into the 
office of the mayor, and asked if he could see him. He 
was going to ask if they might change the rule. 

When he got there, he found that the mayor was out 
of town. The young man came out of the office, 
looked down the hall, and saw on a door at the end 
of the hall, "Chief Constable's Office." He hesitated 
a moment, and something said to him: "Give the Lord 
a chance." He walked into the chief constable's office 
and told him what he had come for. When he finished 
the man said: 

"Well, what street corner would you like?" 

He said: "I don't know this city as well as you do. 
I would not ask for a corner that would be undesirable, 

or where we would block the traffic. Would you mind 
going with me to select a corner?" 

Just think of a missionary asking the chief con- 
stable to pick a corner on which to preach the gospel! 

The constable said: 

"Surely, I will go with you." 

In fifteen minutes they had one of the best corners 
in town, with permission to preach the gospel of Jesus 
Christ where it had not been preached on the streets 
since before the war. (This was following World 

I remember another incident of this nature. Brother 
John A. Widtsoe had a remarkable experience that 
you probably have read about, which has been pub- 
lished in years gone by, when he was in Scandinavia 
and found a whole collection of genealogical records 
in a little store on a side street, which he felt prompted 
to visit without knowing why. The proprietors did not 
have any use for them, and he bought them very 
reasonably. They were Scandinavian genealogies that 
were priceless, but if he had not been praying about 
it, and if he had not been looking for them, and if he 
had not obeyed the promptings of the Spirit, he would 
not have found them. And these particular records 
could not have been duplicated nor otherwise obtained 
in any manner known to us. 

The Lord has a way of accomplishing things that 
we are unable to do, and he never asks us to do any- 
thing that he does not make the way possible. That 
is what he told us through Nephi. He will not require 
anything without preparing the way. 

"And it came to pass that I, Nephi, said unto my 
father: I will go and do the things which the Lord 
hath commanded, for I know that the Lord giveth no 
commandments unto the children of men, save he 
shall prepare a way for them that they may accom- 
plish the thing which he commandeth them." (1 Ne. 

If you have something that the Lord asks or expects 
you to do and you don't know just how to proceed, do 
your best. Move in the direction that you ought to 
go; trust the Lord, give him a chance, and he will 
never fail you. O 

Era, November 1970 7 

President David O. 
McKay, ninth 
President of the 
Church, 1951-1970 

Volume 72, February 1969 

> r ;v 

Courtship and Marriage 

Courtship and Marriage 

By President David O. McKay 


• In courtship and marriage we can modify and con- 
trol to a very great extent our environment. How im- 
portant it is, then, that the companion of each be 
chosen wisely and prayerfully. The choosing of a 
companion determines our future happiness or un- 
happiness. It is a part of wisdom, therefore, to asso- 
ciate only with those from whose company you select 
a life's partner with whom you will be congenial. If 
in such companionship you recognize negative char- 
acteristics in the person who attracts you, try to let 
your judgment rule your heart. Don't fool yourselves 
by thinking that by marriage a person will overcome 
evil habits or negative traits of character. Let these 
be proved before marriage. 

What are the positive characteristics for which we 
should seek? Among the dominant characteristics a true 
lover should possess are honesty, loyalty, chastity, and 
reverence. Never marry anyone who would deceive 

you, who would tell you a lie. The real guiding princi- 
ple, however, is the divinest attribute of the soul— love. 

Young men and women have just entered into that 
state of life when they are driven by heaven-bestowed 
passions— I say God-given passions. There are young 
persons who, recognizing this fact, say: "Having them, 
why cannot we gratify them?" And they receive justifi- 
cation sometimes from modern psychologists. But do 
not be misled. I repeat, you are at that period of life 
in which your physical nature manifests itself, but 
you must also remember that God has given you, in 
that same period of life, powers of reasoning; he has 
given you judgment, and these for a divine purpose. 
Let reason and judgment be your guide— your balance. 

Did you ever stand by the side of a power engine- 
throbbing, throbbing, throwing out its power and 
disseminating heat? On those stationary engines, you 
will find balances. If it were not for them, the whole 


building might be blown up. But as the heat intensi- 
fies, those balances are thrown farther out and out, 
so that the whole thing is under control. So you have 
your reason, your judgment as balances to your pas- 
sion. Try not to lose these balances, or there may 
be an explosion that will wreck your life. 

To look upon marriage as a mere contract that may 
be entered into at pleasure in response to a romantic 
whim, or for selfish purposes, and severed at the first 
difficulty or misunderstanding that may arise, is an 
evil meriting severe condemnation, especially in cases 
wherein children are made to suffer because of 

The seeds of a happy married life are sown in 
youth. Happiness does not begin at the altar; it be- 
gins during the period of youth and courtship. Self- 
mastery during youth and the compliance with the 
single standard of morality is first, the source of virile 
manhood; second, the crown of beautiful womanhood; 
third, the foundation of a happy home; and fourth, 
the contributing factor to the strength and perpetuity 
of the race! 

•I sincerely believe that too many couples come to 
the marriage altar looking upon the ceremony as the 
end of courtship. 

Let all the members of the Church look upon that 
ceremony as the beginning of an eternal courtship. 
Let us not forget that during the burdens of home 
life tender words of appreciation and courteous acts 
are even more appreciated than during those sweet 
days and months of courtship. 

It is after the ceremony and during the trials that 
daily arise in the home that a word of thank you, par- 

don me, if you please, contributes to the perpetuation 
of that love which brought you to the altar. 

Keep in mind three great ideals that contribute to 
happiness after the marriage ceremony. 

First, loyalty. You have no right, young man, to 
yield to the attention of any young woman other than 
that sweet wife, and you, husband, have no right even 
to attract the attention of another man's wife. Her 
duty is with her husband, building a home. Loyalty 
to the great covenant made at that altar! 

Second, self-control. Little things annoy, and you 
speak quickly, sharply, loudly, and wound the other's 
heart. I know of no virtue that helps to contribute 
to the happiness and peace of a home more than the 
great quality of self-control in speech. Refrain from 
saying the sharp word that comes to your mind at 
once if you are wounded or if you see something in 
the other that offends you. In a few minutes you will 
be glad that you did not say the harsh word, that you 
did not commit the impulsive act, and the result is 
love and peace in the home. 

The third ideal is that little simple virtue of cour- 
tesy—parents courteous to their children and children 
courteous to father and mother, and there is an element 
of refinement in the home. Loyalty, self-control, 

Fifteen years, thirty years, fifty years, and through- 
out eternity— be just as courteous to each other as you 
were when you courted. It makes a happy home. I 
know of no other place where happiness abides more 
surely than in the home. It is possible to make home 
a bit of heaven. Indeed, I picture heaven as a con- 
tinuation of the ideal home. O 

The Pasture Ghost 
By Joseph Longking Townsend 

Late one eve within the pasture, 

In the half-moon's fainted glow, 
To the milking place I ventured 

Boy-like, half afraid to go. 
I had dilly-dallied, hunting, 

Past the usual milking time, 
Till from way off in the clearing 

Came the cowbell's tinkling chime. 

Through the stumps and brush there flickered 

Many a startled bird and bat, 
Then appeared there right before me, 

Sure, a ghost in shroud and hat! 
And an arm at me a pointing, 

Plain as anything could be, 
In the half-moon's light a swaying 

Plainly as my eyes could see. 

December 1921 

Startled by the apparition, 

Every hair upon my head 
Bristled in affright, as o'er me 

Shivers ran of fear and dread. 
Then I whistled up my courage, 

Grabbed a limb, and with a blow 
Whacked that ghost, to find it nothing 

But a big white stub aglow. 

Oft since then by things I'm startled, 

Oft the creepy chills of fear 
Worry till my judgment falters 

Viewing things as they appear. 
But that ghost in our old pasture 

Shows me what I fear the most, 
When assailed with proper courage, 

Vanishes as did the ghost. 

Era, November 1970 9 

The Old and the New Magazines 

Editor's Fcige 

By President 
Joseph Fielding Smith 

• This issue of the Improvement Era marks the com- 
pletion of the seventy-third year since the Era began 
publication in November 1897. It also marks the 
second to last issue of the Improvement Era, as we 
have come to know it throughout the Church. 

The other fine magazines of the Church— the Chil- 
dren's Friend, Instructor, and Relief Society Magazine 
—will also cease publication with their December 
issues. Impact, a quarterly publication of the semi- 
naries and institutes of religion, and the Millennial 
Star, which has served the Church since 1840 in Great 
Britain, are also being discontinued. 

Recognizing a need to strengthen the family, the 
basic unit of the Church, the brethren have directed 
that three new publications— the Ensign of The Church 
of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints for adults, the 
New Era for youth and young adults, and the Friend 
for children— are to begin publication in January. 

We urge you now to arrange to have these maga- 
zines in your homes. In the months ahead read, study, 
and make a part of your life the great truths that 
will be found on their pages. Study also the family 
home evening manual, the priesthood and auxiliary 
manuals, and the scriptures as recorded in the standard 
works of the Church. Truly, in these days we have 
been given inspired guides to eternal life and salvation. 

Many of us have considered the Era to be a lifelong 
friend. What memories its pages have given us over 
the years! What counsel and joy it has brought to 
members of the Church throughout the world for the 
past 73 years! 


My father, Joseph F. Smith, the sixth President of 
the Church, served as editor of both the Improvement 
Era and the Juvenile Instructor. This month of thanks- 
giving was not only the month of his birth in 1838, but 
also his death in 1918. In this month of memories J 
pay tribute to him. 

My father was the most tenderhearted man I ever 
knew. His sympathy was perpetually drawn out 
toward the downtrodden and oppressed. Especially 
was his love extended toward little children. He loved 
them all and could not bear to see them wrongfully 

He was a preacher of righteousness, and the sincerity 
of his words penetrated the souls of men. He spoke as 
one having authority and with a firmness, conviction, 
and confidence begotten of a knowledge of the truth. 
There was no element of doubt or uncertainty in his 
testimony. Especially was this so when he spoke of 
the divinity of our Savior and the mission of the 
Prophet Joseph Smith. 

Among my fondest memories are the hours I spent 
by his side discussing principles of the gospel and 
receiving instruction as only he could give it. In this 
way the foundation for my own knowledge was laid 
in truth, so that I, too, can say I know that my Re- 
deemer lives and that Joseph Smith was a prophet of 
the living God. 

As a child I gained a testimony of Joseph Smith and 
Brigham Young in their prophetic callings. President 
Young, with whom my father was closely associated, 
died when I was a year old. In my youth I was per- 

sonally acquainted with John Taylor, Wilford Wood- 
ruff, and Lorenzo Snow. 

When the apostleship came to me, Heber J. Grant, 
George Albert Smith, and David O. McKay, all of 
whom i also served as editors of the Era, were already 
members of the Council of the Twelve. I knew them 
all to be men chosen of God, fearless in their dedica- 
tion to the upbuilding of the Church and kingdom 
here upon the earth. 

Individual, personal testimony is and always will be 
the strength of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- 
day Saints. A testimony is best nurtured in the 'family 
setting. Once nurtured, that testimony will be 
strengthened in the meetings of the Church, through 
study of the words of the prophets recorded in ancient 
and modern writings, and through doing the work of 
the Church. The new magazines will be great aids to 
families in helping each member gain a testimony, for 
the gaining and the keeping of testimonies should be 
a family project. Do not neglect anything that will 
help to strengthen the testimony of any member of 
your family. 

I know that Jesus the Christ, our Elder Brother, is 
the head of this Church as it now functions upon the 
earth, and that he directs its activities and will bless 
us according to our faithfulness in following the ad- 
vice and counsel given to us by his chosen servants 
upon the earth. 

May each of us support the Brethren and those 
who will be responsible for publishing the new maga- 
zines. O 

Era, November 1970 11 



The Improvement Era - 
The Voice ol the Church 


By Doyle L. Green 

Managing Editor 

• I am sitting at a large conference table in the Im- 
provement Era offices. It is night. Members of the 
staff have long since set aside the manuscripts they 
have been editing, the proofs they have been reading, 
the layouts and art they have been developing, and 
have gone home. 

But my task for the day has not yet been completed. 
My assignment is to write about the Improvement 
Era, its history, its staff, its contributions, its accom- 
plishments—and its termination, for the next issue, 
December, will be the last. 

On the table surrounding me are 73 volumes of 
the Era bound in black and stamped in gold. On many 
of them are engraved the words, "The glory of God 
is intelligence." 

I turn through the volumes as I have done so many 
times before, almost reverently. Memories flood in 
upon me. 

My earliest memory of the Era, though recalled from 
the distant past, is as vivid as though it were yesterday. 

My childhood and early youth were spent in a little 
town in the southern part of Salt Lake County. Most 
of the talks given in sacrament meeting in our little 
chapel I have long since forgotten, but one talk given 
by the bishop of our ward impressed me deeply. 
Standing before the congregation, he held up a copy 
of the Improvement Era. 

I pick up a volume from about that year. The format 
of the magazine was much different then; the page 
size was 5%" by 8". There were few illustrations. The 
cover was plain. 

The bishop said: "See this copy of the Improvement 
Era? I wouldn't sell it for a thousand dollars." Tears 
came to his eyes as he explained the reason for his 
astonishing statement. 

One of his sons, who was attending a university, 
had come under the influence of a professor who 
seemed to take a great deal of delight in destroying 
the faith of young Latter-day Saints. The boy's mind 
became troubled and full of doubts. He stopped 
attending priesthood and sacrament meetings; he 
seldom went to Sunday School. The bishop and his 
good wife were beside themselves with anxiety. They 
tried every way they knew but were not able to reach 
their son. When this particular issue of the Era 
arrived, the bishop found in it an article that he felt 
strongly would help his son if he could get him to 
read it; so, being a very wise father, he opened the 
magazine to the article and left it on the table where 
the young man studied. A night or two later the boy, 
tired of his lessons and attracted to the article by its 
title and layout, pushed aside his books 'and read it. 
It did what the bishop and his wife and others had 
not been able to do: it changed the course of his life. 
His questions were answered; he resumed his church 
activity, never again was bothered by any great doubts, 
and became a stalwart in the Church. 

Concluding his story, the bishop said: "Now I am 
not, of course, attempting to place a dollars and cents 
value on the soul of my son, but if I could, that's 
what this issue of the Improvement Era would be 
worth to me." 





^P Wrm PH 


From that time on, the Improvement Era had a spe- 
cial meaning for me. I recall that as a missionary in 
the South Seas I read it avidly. On the low coral 
islands of the Tuamotu Archipelago, where often we 
might not see a boat for many weeks, the arrival of our 
infrequent mail was a much-anticipated event, and 
our Eras, though often several months old, were read 
and reread. They were in a sense our link with Church 
headquarters and the General Authorities. I also recall 
that there were some bound volumes of early issues of 
the magazine in the library in the mission home. These 
I read, and I developed a profound respect and 
admiration for the early editors and writers. 

As I pick up the first volume of the Era, which 
begins with the November 1897 issue, I try to picture 
in my mind and understand the times and circum- 
stances during which this great venture was started. 

The year 1897 was the pioneer golden jubilee year, 
for the Saints had arrived in the valley of the Great 
Salt Lake just 50 years earlier. The Prophet Joseph 
Smith had been dead 53 years. President Wilford 
Woodruff was the prophet, seer, and revelator of the 
growing Church, which would, within three years, 
have 40 stakes and a membership of 236,316. The 
Church as well as the country was in a rather severe 
financial condition, having not yet recovered from 
the financial panic of 1893. 

It certainly seems that by mere human understand- 
ing it was an inopportune time to begin a new publi- 
cation. But any time is the right time to light a beacon 
of righteousness if you have men who are directed by 

the Spirit of the Lord and who have the courage and 
the foresight to begin. And such men were available. 
From somewhere I recall the saying, "Bring me men 
to match my mountains, bring me men to match my 
plains, men with empires in their bosoms and new eras 
in their brains." (Sam Walter Foss.) This statement 
sounds as if it could have been written for this great 
event, the beginning of the Improvement Era. 

In addition to President Woodruff, President Joseph 
F. Smith of the First Presidency, Elder Heber J. Grant 
of the Council of the Twelve, and President Brigham 
H. Roberts of the First Council of the Seventy were 
among those who got the new project underway. They, 
with fellow executives of the MIA, were concerned 
that a line of communication no longer existed between 
leadership in Salt Lake City and the young men 
throughout the Church. ( The Contributor, a magazine 
for the young men of the Church, had, after 17 years 
of publication, been discontinued with the October 
1896 issue. ) 

After many months of planning, the infant maga- 
zine called the Improvement Era was begun "as an 
organ devoted to the uplifting of the youth of Zion, 
and therefore as an aid to help themselves [parents] 
in their efforts to educate and rear their children to 
walk in righteousness and honorable paths. . . . 

"It is also intended to reach the thoughtless and 
wayward, those who are prone to evil, and all whereso- 
ever they are found who possibly can be reached and 
convinced by the potency of its reasoning, the clear- 
ness of its facts, and the witness of its spirit together 

Era, November 1970 13 



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with the Father's blessing and thereby be brought out 
of the darkness and the shadows of the valley of death 
into the marvelous light and liberty of divine truth." 

President Smith and President Roberts were the 
editors and Elder Grant the business manager. The 
new venture had no capital stock except as an unsigned 
editorial in the first issue stated: ". . . their confidence 
in the loyalty and unselfish devotion of the young men 
of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints to 
the cause of mutual improvement." 

Getting circulation was a major problem. Repre- 
sentatives of the proposed magazine traveled about 
in the intermountain area, sometimes by horseback or 
wagon, seeking support for the new publication. 
In addition, Elder Grant pressed his family into service. 
He had a number of lovely daughters. Each night 
after dinner was over and the dishes had been taken 
from the tables and washed, typewriters were brought 
out and the daughters improved their typing skills by 
writing letters for their father, who pleaded with the 
young men throughout the Church to support this new 
venture. Elder Grant, who became the seventh Presi- 
dent of the Church, signed the letters but disliked 
the idea of blotting his signature, so by bedtime hun- 
dreds of letters were often on the floor and the beds, 
waiting for the ink to dry. 

From the January 1898 issue, page 205, I read an 
item that is most interesting: 

"That the success of the Era in starting with so large 
a circulation is phenomenal, will appear from the fol- 
lowing circumstance: 

"When the Era management made application at the 
post office in Salt Lake City for the admission of the 
magazine to the mails as second class matter . . . the 
statement was made that the circulation was 2,000 at 
that time, Nov. 1st. A few weeks later the postmaster 
requested the assistant business manager to call upon 
him in relation to a letter he had received from the 
third assistant postmaster general at Washington. Upon 
calling on the postmaster he was informed that the 
third assistant desired to have the statement in regard 
to the subscription list of the Era verified. The post- 
master at Salt Lake stated that they could not under- 
stand at Washington how a magazine could start out 
in this country with a subscription list of 2,000, as 
usually magazines commenced with a subscription of 
a few hundred only." 

Reading further in the editorial statement, I learn: 
"Had it been known by the post office officials in 
Washington that the Era had started without one 
dollar of capital; that not one dollar of indebtedness 
had been incurred in launching this enterprise, their 
astonishment would no doubt have been increased 

(Continued on page 19) 



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considerably. But however their astonishment may 
be such are the facts in the case." 

Over the years the circulation has grown and 
doubled and doubled again many times, until this cur- 
rent issue of the magazine will be sent out to some 
270,000 subscribers. How the faith of the brethren who 
started the Era has been justified! 

As I turn through the volumes and review again 
the names of editors and writers, I marvel, as I have 
done so many times, at the greatness of the men who 
started the Era, contributed to it, and built it through 
the decades. I am humbled at the depth and potency 
of their messages. I realize that although the maga- 
zine has changed in appearance a good deal over the 
years, in content it has not really changed very much. 
The aims today are the aims established by those who 
started it. The truths of the gospel never change; the 
purposes of the Church are the same now as they 
were then. 

I look at later issues and find that in appearance a 
great deal of progress has been made. The November 
1929 issue, for example, was the first one with the 
present format. The larger page size makes for a better 
use of illustrations and more attractive layouts. Color 
printing was being developed in these years, and two- 
color covers and a second color inside made their 
appearance. This issue was preceded by a storybook 
wedding in the Tabernacle in which the marriage of 




the Improvement Era and the Young Women's Journal, 
published by the YWMIA, was held, uniting the two 

The Era, which had come into existence in difficult 
times, also chose a poor time, financially speaking, for 
marriage and a new format. The first of the new issues 
came from the press the month after the stock market 
crash of 1929 and the beginning of a depression that 
engulfed much of the world for a number of years. 

Subscriptions had started that November at a 
promising 50,000 but soon fell to a low of 20,000. It 

was a time for rebuilding, for works and renewed 
faith. Elder Grant, who was now the President of the 
Church, appointed Elder John A. Widtsoe of the Coun- 
cil of the Twelve, who had been an author for the 
Improvement Era since volume two, to join him as an 
editor. Elder Richard L. Evans left a promising radio 
career to become the managing editor. Many of the 
regular features still enjoyed by Era readers date from 
this time in the mid- 1930s. 

I pick up the 1947 volume with a great deal of 
nostalgia. This was the fiftieth anniversary year for 
the Era and the one-hundredth anniversary of the 
pioneers entering the Salt Lake Valley. World War II 
had drawn to a close. Era subscriptions had leveled 
off at about 80,000. George Albert Smith was Presi- 
dent of the Church and editor of the magazine. Elder 
Widtsoe also was an editor. Elder Evans, now a mem- 
ber of the First Council of the Seventy, was managing 

The time had come again for building and expand- 
ing, and when President Smith and Dr. Widtsoe asked 
me to leave my position as extension editoj with the 
Utah State Agricultural College and join the Era staff, 
I accepted with little hesitation. President Smith said: 
"The Improvement Era represents the Church and 
carries its message to wards and branches in the 
stakes and missions throughout all the world. We 
must make it the best religious magazine in the world 
and place it in the homes of all our people for their 
blessing and edification." 

Under the leadership and direction of the prophets 
of God, and with the cooperation and assistance of a 
devoted and competent staff, we have followed this 
charge and moved forward in publishing "The Voice 
of the Church." 

The success of a magazine really cannot be judged 
by its size or number or pages, by its layouts, by its 
artwork, or by the amount of color in it. In the long 
run it can only be judged by what it has done for its 
readers. From our files of letters and accounts of 
those who have been blessed because of the maga- 
zine I select just a few. 

A young girl in Chicago was babysitting in a Latter- 
day Saint home. She was very much impressed with 
what she later described as a different spirit in the 
home. When the children were all in bed, she turned 
to a magazine rack to find something to read and 
found copies of what to her was a new magazine— 
the Improvement Era. It stirred her interest so deeply 
that when the parents returned home, she asked them 
about the Church. There followed many interesting 
conversations with members of the family and lessons 
by the missionaries. Subsequently she went to Brig- 
ham Young University, and at the time she told her 

Era, November 1970 19 

story, she was anticipating baptism into the Church. 

In Phoenix, Arizona, a family moved into a new 
home. The previous owners, Latter-day Saints, felt 
they couldn't take their several years' collection of 
Improvement Eras with them to their new home in a 
distant city, so they stacked them on a bench in the 
garage. These were found by the two daughters from 
the new family, who began to read them. The mother, 
being concerned about what her daughters were read- 
ing, turned through some of the magazines and called 
her husband's attention to them. Together they read 
a number of the articles. So interested did they be- 
come that they wrote a letter to Church headquarters 
in Salt Lake City, asking for more information about 
the Church. All four were converted and baptized, 
and at the time they reported their story, they said 
they were "the happiest family in Arizona." 

For many years a stake in southern California led 
the Church in attendance at priesthood and sacrament 
meetings and Sunday School and in other areas of 
church activity. During these years the stake also led 
in the percentage of families subscribing to the Era. 
When I talked with the stake president about this 
remarkable performance, he replied, "In very large 
measure we attribute the high spirituality of the people 
of our stake to the fact that they subscribe to and 
read the Improvement Era." 

The superintendent of a ward MIA in the Salt Lake 
Valley told this story: Although he had been born 
into the Church and was baptized, he drifted away as 
a young man. When he fell in love with a young 
Latter-day Saint woman, he influenced her to marry 
him, even though he could not take her to the temple. 
Later his wife tried to get him to correct his bad 
habits and become interested in the Church, but he 
became even more antagonistic. 

One night, while his children were in bed and his 
wife was attending a meeting, he was sitting in the 
living room, smoking a cigarette, when he idly picked 
up a magazine— the Era— and started to thumb through 
it. As the leaves turned, he became attracted to an 
article that was illustrated by a pair of boxers sparring. 
Being interested in sports, he thought this must be 
a story on boxing, so he started to read it. Instead, it 
was a first-person account of a man who had overcome 
the cigarette habit and told how much it had meant 
to him and his family. 

When he finished the article, the man thought of 
his lovely wife and their little children; then, looking 
at the smoke-filled room, the half-filled ashtray, and 
the nicotine stains on his fingers, he decided he was 
never going to smoke another cigarette. Gathering up 
several packages he had, he put them in the trash can 

and, true to his resolve, never smoked again. He 
worked hard also to overcome other bad habits, 
started paying his tithing, and after a period of time 
took his wife and children into the house of the Lord 




to be sealed together for time and all eternity. 

This is a story told by an assistant Era director: 
Soon after he and his wife were married, they became 
interested in and joined the Church, over the strenuous 
objctions of their parents. Relations were so strained 
that his parents would not visit them and asked them 
not to speak of the Church whenever they were to- 
gether. But the young couple, being thoroughly con- 
verted and happy with the truth of the restored 
gospel, wanted to share this happiness with their 
loved ones, so they sent each of them an Era sub- 
scription. One night some months later they received 
a telephone call from his mother, who said, "Son, are 
you busy tonight?" "No, we're not," the young man 
replied. "Well, we have been reading this magazine 
that you sent us, and we wondered if we could come 
over and talk with you about it." They did. There 
followed lessons by the missionaries and not long after 
his father and mother were baptized. 

The testimonials convince me again that the Im- 
provement Era has filled well the goals set by its 

The hour is very late, the time is spent, and I must 
close these volumes. On the morrow, I will turn my 
attention to the future, to new responsibilities, new 
programs, new publications. While we look at the past 
with nostalgia, we look at the future with faith, hope, 
and determination, knowing that the new plan for 
Church magazines is an enormous step forward in the 
great correlation program and carries with its promises 
for serving the Church such as we have never before 

With the December issue, the Era bids adieu to its 
tens of thousands of supporters and readers throughout 
the world. The January issues of the new magazines 
will open a new and challenging era of inspirational 
reading. O 


The Unknown 
By Ruth May Fox 

June 1907 
There are songs enough for the hero, 

Who divells on the heights of fame; 
I sing for the disappointed, 

For those who missed their aim. 

— Ella Wheeler Wilcox 

Some lives have never been written, 
Some stories have never been told, 

Grave secrets in proud hearts lie hidden, 
And sorrows too keen to unfold. 

Some depths have never been sounded, 
Some heights no mortal can reach; 

Some questions have never been answered, 
Some thoughts have never found speech. 

Victories glorious, triumphant, 

Though no one may witness the fray; 

And often the jewel most precious, 
Lies buried in deeps far away. 

But I know there is joy for each sorrow, 
I know there are smiles for each tear; 

That when the great book is laid open, 
Vexed questions will all be made clear. 

There are songs for the hero unknown, 
Far sweeter than music of earth; 

And he who has conquered in silence, 
The universe chanteth his worth. 

His glory sheds over the ages, 
Far out through the limits of time; 

To find a famed niche in his temple, 
And radiate with the Divine. 

Sea Gulls 
By Vesta Pierce Crawford 

June 1931 

Gulls there are by the ocean deep 

With wings like the cold gray waves, 

And gidls there are on the craggy shore 
That sail past the toind-hewn caves. 

But high on the rocks of an inland sea 
Dwells a snow-white gull with a clarion 

And over the maze of a furrowed land 
He circles a path that is far and high. 

Yet ever the stretch of his pinions wide 
On the painted dawn of the day 

Is a challenge deep from that heritage 
No span of the years can sweep away! 

For Aunt Zina 
By Lula Greene Richards 

April 193 1 

Kind memories, dear Atmt Zina, ivill be 

cherished in our hearts 
While spring and summer come and go, 

and sun shall rise and set. 
The hope and helpfulness and tnist a 

life like yours imparts, 
Those who have known and understood 

and loved will not forget. 
May influence pure, as of your faith, 

still cheer and urge ws on, 
In life's uncertain pathivay, 'til, like you, 

we pass and then — 
As victors may we enter the fair realm 

where you have gone, 
And greet with joy your smiling face, 

and hear your voice again. 

Summer's End 
By Zara Sabin 

September 1955 

Here at the farm, quite suddenly, 

our lives are tranquil as a clear deep stream 

flowing between high green banks. 

We weed no more but leisurely 

gather the ripened crops. Our days now seem 

more mellow — time for giving thanks! 

Beauty surrounds us. Full and dark 
the com silk falls from golden rustling leaves 
blown gently by a wandering breeze. 
The richness of scarlet tomatoes mark 
the garden's end. Cool cucumbers weave 
with scalloped squash, a patterned frieze. 

Wild grapes hang red and sweet along 

the meadow's edge. Slowly down the road, 

boldly outlined by westering sun, 

ivith supple movement, sure and strong, 

the great farm horses move their lumbering load 

of fragrant hay. Summer is done. 

A Mocking Bird 
By President A. W. Ivins 

June 1931 

In the stillness of the night, 
When the moonbeams shone, 
Reflecting their light from Zion's 

The song of the Mocking Bird, 
A song without peer, 
Gave courage and hope to the first 


By Christie Lund [Coles] 

April 1931 

Perhaps if springtime never came 
I could forget your smile, 

Which made my life a singing thing 
For such a wondrous while. 

Perhaps if daffodils were not 

So gay upon the hill, 
My quiet heart could be content 

Instead of yearning still. 

Perhaps if lilacs never bloomed, 
Nor gleamed with April rain, 

I coidd go on in tranquil peace 
Without this poignant pain. 

Perhaps if everything did not 

Remind me so of you 
I cotdd forget your voice, your touch 

As if I wanted to. 

Volume 36, December 1932 

Smith --An 

By President B. H. Roberts 

"For other foundation can no 
man lay than that is laid, which is 
Jesus Christ. 

"Now if any man build upon this 
foundation gold, silver, precious 
stones, wood, hay, stubble; 

"Every man's work shall be made 
manifest: for the day shall declare 
it, because it shall be revealed by 
fire; and the fire shall try every 
man's work of what sort it is." 
(1 Cor. 3:11-18.) 

• It was a happy circumstance that 
Joseph Smith tried to lay no other 
foundation than that laid in Christ 
Jesus, our Lord. Had he done so 
his work would have been under 
condemnation from the beginning, 
but his announced new dispensa- 
tion included the Christ to the very 
height of his deity, doctrine, and 
glory. No other foundation could 
any man lay, and Joseph Smith 
made the Christ supreme in his 
scheme of things. It is the Christ 
and his fidelity and his truth that 
gave Joseph Smith's announcement 
the authority and power of God; 

and hence his work endures. No 
mere wood, hay, or stubble in it; 
but gold, silver, precious stones,— 
the things of highest value! 

Every man's work who builds on 
the foundation of Christ, even, is 
to be tested as by fire. Time has 
the same effect; and Joseph Smith's 
work has stood the test of time 
as of fire. About the time of the 
initial movements that founded the 
new dispensation of the gospel, a 
lot of "isms"— "cults"— sprang into 
existence, religions, and philoso- 
phies. These— Quakerism, spiritual- 
ism, Owenism (a communistic cult 
designed by its author Robert Owen 
to take the place of Christianity), 
Campbellism, Millerism, with its 
fixed date for the coming of the 
Christ— but all these have either 
passed out or have become very 
much limited or reduced as fac- 
tors in religious and philosophical 

"Mormonism," so-called, alone 
has survived in anything like its 
original force or intent. Its survival 
is its own witness of its fullness of 

President B. H. Roberts 

of the 

First Council of the Seventy 


truth. We might say for Joseph 
Smith what the Christ once said for 
his own vindication: If he did not 
the works of God, believe him not; 
but if he did, though ye believe not 
him, believe the works, that ye may 
know and believe that God was 
with him. For the works he ( Joseph 
Smith) wrought and their endurance 
for over 100 years under the search- 
light of modern investigation, criti- 
cism, mockery, and persecution are 
his effectual witness of their truth; 
the gospel and the Church he gave, 
under God, to the world, are his 

There are three broad sources 
from which may be drawn an ac- 
count of the Prophet and Seer of 
the new dispensation, his character, 
and his works: 

First, the testimony of those who 
knew him, and received him at his 
own full face value of himself— his 
zealous disciples; 

Second, those to whom he was an 
enigma— a mystery, that they con- 
fess themselves unable to solve; 

Third, his out-and-out opponents 


—his enemies; those who esteemed 
him more than a heretic, more than 
a false prophet, whom the world 
would be well served by being rid 
of, no matter how, and whose works 
they would utterly destroy— whom 
they would gladly see cast into hell! 

Frankly I confess myself to be 
of the first class: one who believes 
in him, accepts him as a prophet 
of the Most High God, inspired as 
no other man has been inspired to 
establish God's truth in the world; 
one who believes in him without 
reservation. To me he was a mighty 
spirit, which made him one of God's 
"great," and "noble," and "good" in- 
telligences in his own right, by the 
very nature of him. To this spirit, 
great, and mighty, and strong, God 
gave, in addition, authority and in- 
spiration which made him of a 
quick and mighty understanding. 

In this atmosphere concerning 
him, I grew from my childhood; I 
reveled in the things I heard of 
him long before I could read them 
for myself; they were read to me 
from the books that were published 

about him— friendly and otherwise— 
that told the story of his heroisms, 
his fearless courage, his unbounded 
love for his friends, his reverence 
for God and sacred things, his in- 
tegrity up to his martyrdom. For all 
this, I loved him, as I now love him. 

I was influenced by the boldness 
of his claims, for the tremendous in- 
tellectual daring that so lifted him 
above common men. Perhaps in 
boyhood I loved him for the very 
sway and swagger of him, and for 
his unschooled eloquence. At any 
rate my own nature formed a union 
with his that nothing could break. 
It may be that now, as in Solomon's 
time, there is no "spot" in the object 
of our love; no "imperfection"! At 
least none that I could see or feel. 

Later, when judgment began to 
assert more sway, and knowledge 
enlarged, and when I learned to 
regard and to love truth more than 
men— I saw limitations in the 
Prophet of the new dispensation, 
and became conscious of human 
frailties and shortcomings in action, 
and saw that he was a man, as he 

himself explained, of like passions 
and prejudices with other men. His 
gracious acknowledgment of the 
limitations disclosed yet another 
virtue to admire, the virtue of 
humility, which endeared him 
still more to me and placed him still 
more beyond detraction from that 
place I had given to him in my 
heart. There let him stand en- 
shrined for me. God, who is said to 
charge even his angels with "folly," 
may judge Joseph Smith, for his 
servant he was, and he knows. To 
me and for me, he is the Prophet 
of the Most High. So let him for- 
ever stand. 

As for the other two sources of 
knowledge about him, those to 
whom he was an enigma and his 
enemies— let them guess and rave; 
"no matter, he is beyond their 
power"— the pelting his memory 
with unsavory epithets cannot 
change his place in God's economy 
of things, or dispose of him in any 
fashion. He belongs to the ages; 
his home is with the Gods; his work 
abides on earth. O 

Era, November 1970 23 





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Volume 36, December 1932 

OurJ^rdthe Qhrist 

Our Lord 
the Christ 

By Elder James E. Talmage 

**mr"° m *wsir m *^xsP 

• The Man Supreme! 

In whom dwelt manhood in completeness and the 
fullness of the Godhead bodily. Under the Father's 
empowerment the Creator of the heavens and the 

Jehovah, the eternally existing One, who is from 
everlasting to everlasting, the I AM of eternity past, of 
time, and of eternity to come. 

Whom the Father called his Chosen, his Begotten 
Son, his First-born of spirits, his Only Begotten in 
the flesh. 

The Word who was in the beginning, who was with 
God, who was God, who was made flesh and dwelt 
among men. 

Foremost of all who have trodden the earth with 
mortal feet. 

The Babe of Bethlehem, the Boy of Nazareth, the 
Man of Sorrows acquainted with grief. 

My Elder Brother and yours. 

The Teacher preeminent. 

He who was condemned as a malefactor, died as a 
mortal, rose as a God triumphant. 

Redeemer of the race from death, Savior from the 
effects of sin, source of life eternal. 

The first to come forth from the tomb a resurrected 

The conquerer of death and hell. 

He who shall come in like manner as he went and 

Elder James E.. 
Talmage, member 
of the Council of the 
Twelve (1911-1933) 
and author of 
The Articles of Faith 
and Jesus the Christ 

shall reign personally upon the earth with his saints. 

He who shall deliver to the Father the cleansed 
and purified earth, with its hosts of the redeemed, 
saying, "I have overcome and have trodden the wine- 
press alone. . . . Then shall he be crowned with the 
crown of his glory, to sit on the throne of his power 
to reign forever and ever." (D&C 76:107-08.) 

He has been repeatedly proclaimed by the Father's 
voice as the Son divine, and from boyhood to sacrificial 
death solemnly avowed his own exalted status as that 
Son of Man. Prophets and apostles in both olden and 
modern days, and the "common people" who heard 
him gladly, have reverently affirmed his divinity. 
Angels have sung and demons shrieked his name as 
that of power and Godship. 

We acclaim Jesus Christ as the veritable Son of the 
Eternal Father in both spirit and body. He lived as 
a man among men yet was wholly unique in that he 
combined within himself the attributes of mortality as 
the heritage from a mortal mother and the powers of 
Godhood received as a birthright from his immortal 

Thus he was capable of death and died, yet had 
power over death, and so held death in abeyance 
until he willed to die. This he affirmed while yet he 
was mortal: "Therefore doth my Father love me, be- 
cause I lay down my life, that I might take it again. 

"No man taketh it from me, but I lay it down of 


myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power 
to take it again. . . ." (John 10:17-18.) 

He was unique in having been accepted and fore- 
ordained to be the Redeemer and Savior of mankind, 
and yet again in the fact of his absolute sinlessness. 

He was the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, the 
Jehovah of the Old Testament and the Christ of the 
New. No man can return to the Father except through 
the Son, for the name of Jesus Christ is the only name 
which shall be given under heaven, whereby salvation 
shall come unto the children of men. (See Acts 4:12.) 

He has manifested himself in person to his prophets 
in the present dispensation, and has spoken with them 
as one man speaks with another. 

He is known to be in the likeness of the Eternal 
Father— the express image of the Father's person— for 
both have been seen and heard in this the dispensation 
of consummation and fullness. 

Through the instrumentality of men commissioned 
to officiate for him, he has reestablished his church 
upon the earth, for the last time, and has bestowed 
upon it his name— The Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints. 

He has officered his church as of old, with apostles, 
patriarchs, high priests, seventies, elders, bishops, 
priests, teachers, and deacons. 

Again as aforetime he has called and is calling man- 
kind to faith and repentance, then to baptism by 

water, and to the baptism of the Spirit through the 
bestowal of the Holy Ghost by the authorized imposi- 
tion of hands. 

He manifests his powers through the graces of the 
Spirit, as seen in gifts of revelation, prophecy, tongues, 
and the'ir interpretation, by inspired dreams and vi- 
sions, by healings, and by a diversity of gifts called 
by man miracles. 

Through him redemption is assured and salvation 
made possible to every soul. Salvation includes and 
exceeds redemption. It is the plan conceived in the 
mind of God the Eternal Father and given to man 
through Jesus Christ, whereby the degenerating and 
disastrous results of individual transgression may be 
atoned for; it is the means by which the loathsome 
malady of sin may be cured. Redemption, or rescue 
from death, is of universal assurance; salvation is of 
individual attainment, made possible through com- 
pliance with the laws and ordinances of the gospel 
based on the atonement accomplished by him alone. 

A Redeemer and Savior is essential to the accom- 
plishment of the Father's work and glory— "to bring 
to pass the immortality and eternal life of man." 

Sometime, somewhere, the knowledge of the Lord 
shall come to every soul with saving or convicting 
effect; then every knee shall bow, and every tongue 
confess that he is the Christ, the Son of the living 
God. O 

Era, November 1970 29 

TTfe E©y aid tfe Welb 


By Nora Ann Richardson 

Illustrated by Dale Kilbourn 
• Martha wiped the steamed win- ness knows, a brisk walk would 
dow glass and watched as Darcy take anyone to the schoolhouse in 
scuffed across the yard swinging twenty minutes, let alone the 
his lunch pail. Surely, she worried, hour's start she was giving him this 
he'll be on time this morning. Good- morning. 

25 lir ^ 

e Nam Aan K«* 

She frowned as she returned to 
bouncing the wooden dasher in the 
old crockery churn. Of course, 
Darcy was hardly seven, and yet- 
well, it wasn't too soon to think 
about molding his character. He 
was a good little fellow, but there 
was such a lackadaisicalness about 
him. Start him on a chore and it 
wasn't any time at all before he'd 
be at something else, completely 
forgetful of his first task. 

Young Martha Reed took her 
own responsibilities very seriously. 
More so than ever, since that tele- 
gram four years ago, and the sober- 
ing knowledge she'd have to go it 
alone. A fine, hardworking little 
woman, the neighbors nodded ap- 
provingly. No nonsense about 
Martha. It was a reputation in 
which she took pride. And what, 
she wondered, would Darcy's repu- 
tation be someday? 

"Late to school, late to school, 
late to school," the dasher said. 

On sudden impulse, she snatched 
her big straw hat and ran across 
the yard, scattering the lazy red 
hens in her hurry. Late every sin- 
gle day this week! Why, it was 
actually a disgrace! She'd see to it 
that he got to school on time asi he 
was supposed to. 

She'd just take him by the arm 
and march him right along and— 
She left the thought uncompleted 
as she strode along through the soft 
early morning autumn. The short- 
cut to the county road lay through 
the woods, and she went carefully 
over the narrow, pine needle- 
covered trail, mildly surprised at 
the mellow wood scents she'd for- 
gotten in these past busy months. 

She saw him beside the creek, 
battered lunch pail at one side, 
watching something in the water 
with wholly absorbed interest. 
Exasperation rose in her, as she 
went to grab him. 

A footfall betrayed her, and he 
turned his round, snub-nosed face 


Volume 55, September 1952 

toward her. The shock of rust- 
brown hair was in his eye again. He 
was an odd little miniature of his 

"Sh!" Darcy said. "Look!" 

There was movement in the 
underbrush across the creek, and a 
muskrat swam out to eye them 

"Ho, you," Darcy called. "What- 
cha catch this morning?" 

The animal turned and coasted 
leisurely back to its hiding place on 
the opposite bank. 

"I see him every day," he ex- 
plained, as if that ended the matter. 
"Sometimes I toss pebbles and he 
swims over, and it's like a sorta 
game—" The glance at his mother 
was not entirely approving. "He's 
scared of you, though. He don't 
like grownups." 

"Doesn't he, though! Well, I 
think we'd better pick up our lunch 
pail, Darcy Reed, and get along to 

"Oh— school. Well, s'long, mom." 

"I'll just go along a stretch, young 
man." The lecture she'd planned 
wouldn't materialize. 

"Aw, mom . . ." He trudged 
along beside her, up and along the 
pine-fragrant path. It was pleas- 
ant in the forest, Martha was 
forced to admit, scarcely aware she 
was walking more slowly. So long 
since she'd walked for its sake 
alone. There was always so much 
to do; the chicks in the brooder 
house, the three cows, the skim- 
ming, and cooling, and cleaning 
up, and churning. 

Suddenly she realized her son 
wasn't beside her. 

"Darcy! Darcy Reed!" 

She turned and saw him a dozen 
paces back, squatting on his 
haunches, his head low over the 
path. She went to him. "What in 
the world—" 

Martha stared at the ground. A 

\few shiny black ants traveled up 

and down imperceptible highways, 

meeting, touching, and hurrying on 

Darcy drew a twig across the 
ant trail and watched as the insects 
scurried around in sudden panic. 
"It's an earthquake," he announced. 
"Run fast, little ants, it's an earth- 
quake. Just like China," he said 
suddenly to Martha. 

Like China? She pondered that 
while he opened his lunch pail, 
crumbled part of a sandwich for 
the ants, and absently munched the 

The ants; funny little things, 
carrying mountain-sized crumbs, 
hurrying so senselessly this way and 
that . . . unaware of the round-eyed 
humans fantastically immense . . . 
of the forest and its heavy, somno- 
lent silence. 

It was Darcy who stood up first. 
"Got something else to show you, 
mom." He went on ahead of her to 
the almost- clearing where a pine 
had fallen last year and was begin- 
ning its slow, moldering dissolution. 
"Come on over here, in these 
bushes, mom." 

She caught her breath at the 
sight of the web, glistening with 
sunlight, patterned with perfect 

"Now you watch, mom." He 
tossed a rolled-up leaf so that it 
hung, breeze-trembling, on the 
silvery tracing. 

Martha opened her mouth, then 
closed it. A brown spider danced as 
down a tightrope. It passed mo- 
tionless, then turned and worried 
the bit of green until it tumbled 
reluctantly from the net. 

"He likes flies." Darcy's hand 
flashed in the air near the log; he 
brought it close to the web and 
released the insect. Again the 
tracery trembled; the spider rushed 
out, but now it remained. 

"The spiders eat flies, and the 
frogs eat spiders, and the snakes 
eat the frogs," he explained sober- 
ly, as though understanding her 

thoughts. "That's nat'chrul history, 

"Yes," she said, from her seat on 
the log. "I suppose it is." All part 
of the silent, unseen struggle that 
went on in the forest by day and 
night for eons past and those to 
come— yet sensing the pattern of 
tumult, she felt unaccountably at 
peace. The other, older Darcy came 
into her thoughts, and she remem- 
bered a summer day spent with him 
on a wooded hillside. She remem- 
bered the way his dark hair fell 
unheeded over one gray eye, and 
his deep, thoughtful voice as his 
fingers drew a small rectangle in 
the path. If we knew this single 
foot of earth, he'd said, we toould 
know 'most all the universe. 

There came the distant tolling of 
a bell, and she wondered absently 
what it might be. 

Darcy gave a small cry. "Gee, 
mom, the school bell!" 

"Hurry," she cried, shoving the 
lunch pail at him. "Oh, darling, 
run! You're going to be late again!" 

She watched the small puffs of 
dust as he reached the country road 
and raced away around the turn. 

She walked slowly back and sat 
on the log. The spider was gone; 
the fly was gone; the web was as it 
had been— silvery with dew. 

If we knew this single foot of 
earth. Dear God, she thought, let 
him grow up to be just the same. 

She smiled to herself as gentle 
fragrance warmed with the gather- 
ing day. "You're just natural his- 
tory," she said to the unseen 
spider. Like herself, a fragment 
caught up in tumultuous life. 

But there's a difference, she 
thought, starting back toward 
home, toward her butter churn, the 
chickens, and cows. There are so 
many small, unnoticed victories 
that, added together, can make 
one's life a song of triumph. And 
today, perhaps, I have had my own 
small victory. O 

Era, November 1970 31 


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Volume 32, April 1929 

Gentile Gibbs' Boy 

TV ;'.r'.J:«-!i t^mvttwj nt* to tpcee 
? night st'^h him. to u *0t>n *» wt 
n. a* ftb ut mi iwkhtl ft* hi* 

By Elsie Chamberlain Carroll 

Illustrated by Dale Kilboum 

• The drop of a pin could have 
been heard in the crowded little 
cultural hall as the young man 
ended his masterful speech. It 
was the final one of the contest. 
For a moment no one stirred. Then 
the old man on the front row, whose 
rapt face had robbed the brilliant 
young speaker of part of my atten- 
tion, drew a handkerchief from his 
pocket and blew his nose. Instantly 
the spell was broken. There was 
a thunder of applause, followed by 
a subdued buzz of appreciative 
comments. The judges, as every- 
one knew they would, awarded the 
prize to the last speaker, listed as 
number four in the contest. 

While the choir was preparing 
to sing, I leaned over and asked 
Bishop Whiting the name of the 


boy who had just finished speaking. 

"That's Donald McKell-Gentile 
Gibbs' boy," he answered, adding 
hurriedly, "remind me to tell you 
his story." 

There wasn't any danger of my 
forgetting to remind him, for never 
in all my experience in MIA work 
had my interest been so challenged 
by the words of a young speaker. 
I am afraid I didn't hear much of 
the song, for my eyes kept seeking 
the face of the young contestant. 
It was not a handsome face, but 
there was character written all over 
it. The old man whose eager listen- 
ing had attracted me was also still 
looking up at the boy who had just 
spoken, his face shining with ador- 
ing pride. I wondered if that was 
Gentile Gibbs of whom I had heard 

■3T~J*&~*<**^*' W '** m > < * ***V»^il'' , '*te 

on my intermittent visits to Banak. 
I was not long in discovering that a 
third pair of eyes was neglecting 
the music to stray to the sandy- 
haired lad. These were soft brown 
eyes, looking out from the pretty 
face, framed with brown curls, of a 
little girl who sat in the choir. Two 
or three times the lad looked in her 
direction, and each time the tan 
of his cheeks seemed to deepen. 

Immediately after adjournment 
the young winner was surrounded 
by congratulating friends. I crowded 
up with the rest of them, and when 
Bishop Whiting said, "Donald, 
Brother Jones of the general board 
would like to shake hands with 
you," I was happy to tell the young 
man how proud we were of the 
thing he had done. He received my 

congratulations with reserve, but 
with genuine appreciation. 

He soon left the stage and began 
talking with the old man, while the 
little brown-eyed girl stood waiting 
a few steps away. 

The bishop had invited me to 
spend the night with him, so as 
soon as we were in his car and 
headed for his home, I reminded 
him of his promise. 

"You were going to tell me, 
bishop, about that young lad who 
won the contest— Gentile Gibbs' 
boy, you called him." 

"Yes, yes; a very interesting story 
—and helpful because it's true and 
happened right here in our own 

"You perhaps know," the bishop 
commenced, "that Hank Gibbs had 

been the only permanent gentile in 
Banak for as far back as most of us 
can remember. There have been 
transients, of course, now and then, 
but Gentile Gibbs has always been 
with us, and as we used to say, he 
was a regular 'Mormon' eater." 

"But," I interrupted the bishop, 
"wasn't that he, there on the front 
row tonight— the most attentive and 
appreciative person in the room?" 

"Yes; that's what makes it all so 

"You see, we had grown up here 
in Banak to regard Hank Gibbs as 
the embodiment of all that is evil, 
never dreaming that there might be 
a vein of good in his character if 
only someone should try to reach 

"He wasn't always a gentile,— an 

Era, November 1970 35 

apostate, you see. When he was a 
boy, so I recall, soon after he had 
married Emily Callister, the daugh- 
ter of Bishop Callister, who had 
been sent down here to help settle 
this part of the country, he was 
offended by an insignificant thing. 
From that time he was a bitter 
enemy of the Church. His young 
wife died a few years later, of a 
broken heart, so everyone said, 
leaving a little girl. 

"Brother and Sister Callister, 
naturally, wanted to take the baby, 
but Gibbs took her away to a rela- 
tive of his in California, and we 
never did hear much about her. 
Once in a great while she would 
come out for a short visit; and while 
her grandmother Callister lived, I 
think she sort of kept in touch 
with her. 

"Then we heard she was married 
and later that her husband had 
been killed in the World War. Soon 
after that she came back with her 
little boy and kept house for her 

father. But it was only for a couple 
of years, for she died when Donald 
was about ten years old. 

"I have often thought of late, 
Brother Jones," the bishop com- 
mented as we started up the path 
to the house, after putting the car 
in the garage, "that we Latter-day 
Saints who have borne so much 
persecution should have learned 
the lesson of tolerance. But we 
haven't learned it; we are just as 
intolerant and probably as cruel in 
our way as many of our perse- 

The bishop went on with his 
story as we sat in his comfortable 
living room. 

"You see, because little Donald 
was old man Gibbs' boy, he was at 
once ostracized— set apart, and 
branded as a gentile. As a child 
he was retiring and shy, and as 
none of the other children sought 
his companionship, he lived in a 
world of his own. In school he was 
very bright and read everything 

"In the Beginning Was the 
Word . . ." 

By Mabel Jones Gabbott 

February 1950 

I sought one word to guide my heart 
That crystallized this perfect life, 
To temper happiness, to chart 
The buffetings of toil and strife. 

Could it be majesty or power, 
Or friendliness or sympathy, 
Or courage equal to the hour, 
Compassionate divinity ? 

"In the beginning was the Word . . ." 
/ read the record; heaven above 
Had known that Jesus would be heard 
And symbolized by one word, "Love." 

available, but he took no part in 
school doings— that is, he was given 
no chance to participate in the nor- 
mal activities of school and com- 
munity life— and all because he was 
Gentile Gibbs' boy. 

"You remember perhaps that a 
few years ago there was quite an 
oil enthusiasm created about some 
wells discovered just south of here. 
It brought in a flock of adventurers. 
Several families, in fact, came and 
settled for the winter here in Banak. 
There were among them half a 
dozen youngsters a little older than 
Donald. They took him into their 
crowd and almost overnight he 
seemed to have become a different 
boy. He lost interest in school. He 
began to smoke and to sit on the 
street corners and try to tell as vile 
jokes, or swear as profanely, as the 
rest of them. 

"That winter we had a regular 
reign of terror here. Our own 
youngsters went through the hood- 
lum period, of course, as each new 
crop came along; but we had never 
known what it meant to have our 
nights disturbed by drunken yelling 
and profanity in the streets; to 
have our cars stolen and smashed 
up and our places of business 

"The strange thing about it was 
the way old man Gibbs took this 
change in Donald. My own wife 
couldn't have been more distracted 
had she seen our Joe suddenly go- 
ing to the dogs. He used to spend 
his nights hunting for the boy, and 
he paid out hundreds of dollars 
making good the damages done by 
the boy and his associates. 

"It was two years ago last fall 
that the gang took a car from the 
curb in front of the Co-op store one 
night and went over to Granville, 
which is across the state line, you 
know. There they got some whis- 
key, and while coming back about 
three o'clock in the morning they 
ran into the car of some tourists 


who were camped by the road 
about a mile east of town. A woman 
and a child who were sleeping in 
the car were rather seriously hurt, 
as were also Donald and one of the 
other boys. 

"The three boys of the gang who 
were not injured walked back to 
Granville and somehow got out of 
the country before the officers 
learned of the job. 

"Donald and his companion were, 
of course, arrested, and things 
looked pretty serious for them. The 
other boy was nearly twenty-one 
and Donald only seventeen, so they 
tried them separately. When the 
older boy was sentenced to a term 
in the penitentiary, people began 
to say that if the judge would only 
send Donald to the reform school 
for a few years (since the rest of 
the gang had skipped), the com- 
munity might breathe easy again. 

"During the preliminary hearing 
and the time between that and the 
trial, old man Gibbs went about 
like a wild man, declaring that 
Donald had been led into the 
trouble by the older boys, and that 
if there was any justice in the law 
they wouldn't make a criminal of 
him by sending him up and brand- 
ing him for life. But most everyone 
in town had some grudge against 
the old man and thought this 
served him right for the way he had 
made other people suffer. 

"It's strange, isn't it," the bishop 
stopped to philosophize, "how blind 
our prejudices can make us? Not 
one of us was thinking of the boy 
and what this was going to do to 
him. We were all rather gloating 
over the fact that, after all, Gentile 
Gibbs was getting what he de- 
served. It took a stranger to see 
Donald's side of the affair and to 
show us what an un-Christian lot 
we had been. That stranger was 
Hal Benson,— you know him, our 
seminary teacher who was new that 

"We had asked Benson to take 
over the M Man group in Mutual 
and, although school had been go- 
ing but a little over a month, he 
had contact with every boy in town 
within their homes. When that 
affair happened he knew more 
about Hank Gibbs' boy than all the 
rest of us had learned in the seven 
or eight years he had lived here. 

"I'll never forget the night Ben- 
son came to see me. It was the 
night before the boy's case was to 
come up for final hearing. I'm sure 
I have never felt so chagrined and 
unworthy of my position in my 

" 'Bishop,' Benson said, we've got 
to save that boy. He's not a criminal 
any more than your Joe is. He's a 
victim of— I suppose I shouldn't say 
prejudice— but I wonder if you or 
anyone in your ward really know 
the boy. He's been denied all the 
normal social contacts a boy ought 
to have because his grandfather is 
a gentile,— at least that's as I under- 
stand the matter— though I may, of 
course, be mistaken.' Benson paused 
to give me a chance to tell him he 
was mistaken, but I couldn't. 

"Then he told me about the boy— 
his loneliness and the different 
ways he had tried to substitute 
things in his life to take the place 
of the things we self-righteous 
folks had denied him. We had 
rather restrained our children when 
they wanted to play with him. We 
hadn't welcomed him into the or- 
ganizations of the Church. He had 
been shunned merely because he 
was Gentile Gibbs' boy. So he had 
built bird-houses in his grand- 
father's orchard, and had collected 
moths and butterflies and studied 
and written up their habits, and 
had made a little aquarium out in 
the barn, and had collected quite a 
library of government bulletins on 
a dozen different subjects. 

' 'Why, Donald is the most inter- 
esting lad in this town,' Benson 

declared to me, 'and it's our duty to 
save him.' 

"I was amazed at the things he 
told me about the boy, and still was 
unwilling to give up my prejudices. 
I reminded Benson that the boy had 
picked up with those rough chaps 
from the South almost as soon as 
they arrived in town, and that there 
was an old saying about *birds of a 

"'The fact that he took up with 
them is no proof at all of any 
natural criminal instincts,' Benson 
insisted. 'Any normal boy is gre- 
garious—he likes to be with others 
of his own age. It was the most 
natural thing in the world that he 
should fall in with them when they 
showed him a little friendliness. 
Perhaps I ought not to say it, bish- 
op, but those youngsters are not so 
much to blame for Donald McKell's 
delinquency as you people right 
here in Banak are.' Benson got all 
warmed up as he explained some 
things to me from a psychological 
viewpoint that I had never sensed 

At this point Bishop Whiting sat 
long, looking into space; I had to 
remind him that he hadn't finished 
the story. 

"The hearing— they had the hear- 
ing, I suppose?" 

"Oh— yes, yes," the bishop an- 
swered, coming out of his reverie 
with a start. "First, though, I went 
with Benson to see the boy— they 
had him there in jail. It was just 
dusk when we went, and he looked 
so little and lonely in that bare cell— 
and his head and one arm still 
bandaged. Well, I felt extremely 
guilty for the things we hadn't tried 
to do for the boy. I had never no- 
ticed before how much his eyes 
were like his Grandmother Callis- 
ter's, and I couldn't help thinking 
what if it had been our Joe— in a 
place where nobody cared any 
more than we had cared. 

"When we left the jail, we went 

Era, November 1970 37 

* We expect 
in time to have 
of this bank 
all over 
the Territory. " 

BRIGHAM YOUNG as recorded in the millenial star xxxv. oct. 3, ws 

Brigham Young was right! Zions Bank 
branches now stretch across Utah, from 
St. George to Centerville (with 10 new 
offices added in the past 9 months). 

Brigham Young organized Zions Savings Bank nearly one 
hundred years ago as a service for all the citizens of Utah. 
He did this, he said, so they could enjoy "the advantages of a 
higher rate of interest." During the 1960's the original three 
Pioneer banks blossomed into fifteen, and, remarkably, ten 

more branch offices have been added just since January. 
But the real story is told in deposits. As Brigham Young 
proposed, Utahns have carried their savings dollars into Zions 
twenty-five branches until deposits now approach a staggering 
total of nearly $300 million dollars. 

Meet the 24 directors of Zions First National Bank 


Chairman of the Board 
Member. First Presidency. The Church 
of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints 


Vice Chairman of l he Board 

Former Chairman of the Norge Division 

BorgWarner Corporation 


President and Chairman of the Executive 

Committee Zions First National Bank 


President. Heber J Grant S. Co 

Former Executive Vice President 

Zions Savings Bank & Trust Company 


President. The Church of Jesus Christ 
of Latter day Saints 


President ZCMI Department Store 


Chairman Fred A Carleson Pontiac 


President. Madsen Furniture Company 


Member. Council of the Twelve. The Church 
of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 


President. Utah Hotel Company 


President and General Manager. 
Associated Food Stores 


Chairman Finance Committee. 
Beneficial Life Insurance Co 



Vice President and General Manager 

Mountain States Telephone & Telegraph Co. 


President. Eastman Hatch & Company 


Managing Director Bamberger Investment Member. Council of the Twelve. The Church 
and Exploration Company of Jesus Christ ot Latter-day Saints 


President. Granite Furniture Company Member. Council of the Twelve. The Church 
of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 


Member. Council of the Twelve. The Church 
of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints 


Regional Manager. 
American Oil Company 


General Manager. Utah Division 
Kennecott Copper Corporation 


Vice President 
Zions First National Bank 


Austin Realty & Construction Co. 



e©© zions 


With 25 offices throughout Utah to better serve you. 

Member Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation 

to see Hank Gibbs and to talk 
things over with him. I dreaded 
that— he had been so wild at first 
and he hated everybody in Banak— 
or at least we thought he did. But 
the sight of the old fellow, huddled 
in a corner of the untidy kitchen, 
was even more pathetic, if possible, 
than the sight of the boy had been. 
He had lost all hope and was trying 
to resign himself to the loss of the 
only thing in the world he loved. 

"When we had really convinced 
the old man that we were genuinely 
interested in the boy and wanted to 
see that the best thing possible was 
done for him, the old fellow broke 
down and cried like a baby. 

"Well, the outcome was that 
Donald was given a year's sus- 
pended sentence but was paroled to 

"Benson persuaded him to come 
back to school, and with the sup- 
port of the other boys and what 
little help I could give him, finally 
got Donald to feeling that he was 
a member of the community and 
not a pariah. He began by taking 
part in school activities; then he 
started to come to Sunday School 
and Mutual. Before the winter was 
over he was one of the most active 
members of the M Man group. The 
result was that in the spring just 
before school was out he came to 
Benson one day and said he wanted 
to be baptized. 

"Talk about dramatic incidents in 
stories," the bishop went on after 
another pause. "You don't read 
things much more dramatic than 
what we had right here in Banak 
the day Donald was baptized. We 
don't have a font, but do our bap- 
tizing down in the reservoir below 
town. Saturday afternoon, the last 
of May, had ' been set apart for 
baptisms. A large group of chil- 
dren were ready for the ordinance, 
since no baptizing had been done 
during the winter months. That, 
together with the fact, which had 

become known, that Donald was 
going to become a member of the 
Church, brought about half the 
town out. The time set was four 
o'clock. Everybody was wondering 
how old man Gibbs would take it— 
and whether he knew or not. He 
had rarely been seen on the streets 
or in places of business all winter. 
Heretofore it had always been his 
custom to spend his afternoons on 
the street corners or in front of the 
post office or stores, railing at 
things in general, but at the Church 
and Church officials in particular. 
Naturally there was considerable 
excited speculation as to how he 
would take Donald's baptism. 

"The children were baptized 
first, and Benson was just going 
into the water to officiate for Don- 
ald when a suppressed whisper ran 
through the crowd that Gibbs was 
coming. We all looked up the road, 
and sure enough, the old man on 
his sorrel mare was hurrying to- 
ward us. There was a tense silence. 
Instinctively we all felt sure that 
he had heard about Donald and 
was coming to interfere— not that 
he had made any fuss about Don- 
ald's activities during the winter as 
far as we knew, but we took it for 
granted his changed attitude was 
due to gratitude that the boy hadn't 
been sent to the reform school and 
consequently didn't openly resent 
anything Benson thought best for 
the boy. The fact that he had rarely 
been seen all winter made the sight 
of him now seem critical, to say the 

"Donald was the only one in the 
crowd who did not become excited 
—that is, the only one except Ben- 
son, who with his back to the road, 
as he walked into the water, hadn't 
seen Gibbs approaching. 

"When he asked Donald if he 
was ready and the boy answered 
affirmatively, we all held our 
breath, for the grandfather wasn't 
more than half a dozen rods away. 

Era, November 1970 39 

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We expected any second to hear 
him belch forth a stream of pro- 
fanity and forbid the ceremony. 

"Donald walked to Benson's side 
and Benson was just ready to begin 
when Gibbs rode up by me and got 
off his horse. In my fear of what 
was going to happen and in my 
effort to decide what I should do 
when the outburst came, I failed to 
look at him. 

"But no outburst came. Donald 
was baptized! 

"Then I turned my eyes to Hank 
Gibbs and received the surprise of 
a lifetime. The old man was stand- 
ing there with his hat off and his 
head bowed. His face was working 
pitifully. When Donald stepped 
upon the bank, the grandfather 
seized both his hands and bent over 

"We all stood there watching. 

For a moment there wasn't a sound 
or a movement. Then Hank Gibbs 
turned to me and said: 

" 'Bishop, do you think— God 
would— be insulted if— I were to be 
a part of the Church again?' 

"Since that time he hasn't missed 
a meeting, and he's paid enough 
tithing to make up for years and 
years of negligence, and he can't 
do enough when it comes to con- 
tributing to ward maintenance and 
helping the poor or those in trouble. 
I have been hearing all week from 
different widows in town that sacks 
of flour have been left on their 
doorsteps during the last month. I 
know the one who has been doing 
all this is Hank Gibbs. Only yes- 
terday he made arrangements for 
Nellie Snyder to go to the hospital 
for an operation she has been need- 
ing for years. It's pathetic to see 

how hard he is trying to make up to 
the Church and to the Lord for 
those years of hatred. And his 
pride in Donald—" 

The bishop was interrupted by 
the opening of the outside door. To 
my surprise the little brown-eyed 
girl of the choir came in. 

"Brother Jones, this is my daugh- 
ter," the bishop said, and as I 
stepped forward to shake hands 
with the girl, he asked: 

"Did Donald tell you, Ruth, that 
he received his call for a mission 

"Oh, yes," the girl answered, a 
deeper pink flushing her pretty 
face, "and he's so thrilled about it." 

The light that shone in the girl's 
brown eyes set me to dreaming of 
another chapter that would doubt- 
less be added to the story of Gentile 
Gibbs' boy. O 

Elder Orson F. 

Whitney, member of 

the Council of the 

Twelve (1906-1931) 

Elect of Elohim 

From Canto Three of Elder Orson F. Whitney's "Elias" 

March 1929 

He wandered through the faithless world, 

A prince in shepherd guise; 
He called his scattered flock, but few 

The voice could recognize; 
For minds upborne by hollow pride, 

Or dimmed by sordid lust, 
Ne'er look for kings in peasant garb, 

For diamonds in the dust. 

O bane of damning unbelief! 

Thou source of lasting strife! 
Thou stumbling stone, thou barrier thwart 

The gates of endless life! 
O love of self, and mammon lust, 

Twin portals to despair, 
Where bigotry, the blinded bat, 

Flaps through the midnight air! 

Through these, gloom-wrapt Gethsemane! 

Thy glens of guilty shade 
Grieved o'er the sinless Son of God, 

By gold-bought kiss betrayed; 

Beheld him unresisting dragged, 

Forsaken, friendless, lone, 
To halls where dark-browed hatred sat 

On judgment's lofty throne. 

Trans fixt he hung, — O crime of crimes! — 

The God whom worlds adore. 
"Father forgive them!" Drained the dregs; 

Immanuel — no more. 
No more where thunders shook the earth, 

Where lightnings thivart the gloom, 
Saw that unconquered spirit spurn 

The shackles of the tomb. 

Far-flashing on its wings of light, 

A falchion from its sheath, 
It cleft the realms of darkness, and 

Dissolved the bands of death. 
Hell's dungeon burst, wide open swung 

The everlasting bars, 
Whereby the ransomed soul shall ivin 

Those heights beyond the stars. 

40 Era, November 1970 




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■««, tat tmm' 
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What Joseph Smith 
Did for the Womanhood 
of the Church 

By Susa Young Gates 

founder of the 
Young Woman's 

• One hundred years permits an 
observer a fairly accurate perspec- 
tive by which to measure the 
history and character of those who 
began life at the beginning of that 
period. And although hundreds of 
years will be necessary in which to 
tell the tale of the greatness and 
majesty of the man Joseph Smith, 
yet we can arrive at some measure 
of the truth in this comparatively 
short time. 

What his life and mission did for 
men, for science, for philosophy, 
for life in its fullest and deepest 
sense, others may consider; but the 
inquiry now and here to be an- 
swered is, what did his life and 
mission mean to the womanhood of 
the Church, and, therefore, to the 
women of the world? 

First of all, what was the condi- 
tion of women, socially, politically, 
and religiously, in 1830, when the 
Church was organized? 

In answering this, it should be 
known that at the beginning of the 

nineteenth century, when Joseph 
was born, the full education of 
girls was unknown. They were al- 
lowed, not very graciously, to at- 
tend school when the boys were 
away at work. But the same violent 
opposition to every phase of the 
woman's question was then cen- 
tered on the ultra-liberal idea of 
permitting girls to acquire any 
learning but the polite arts of read- 
ing and writing, and perhaps a 
smattering of French and music, 
with embroidery and fine sewing. 
More than this, declared preachers 
and teachers, came of the devil. In 
the early part of the century, a 
female seminary was opened. But 
even then, such strong meat as 
mathematics or science was deemed 
heretical to suggest as food for 
brains of delicate girls. 

Socially, women were just emerg- 
ing from the long, dark traditions 
of the Crusades, the monasteries, 
and the later strait-laced Puritan 
prejudices against woman appear- 

ing anywhere in public life. Yet, 
socially women had far more op- 
portunities and privileges than 
educationally, politically, or re- 
ligiously, for the way from the 
drawing room led often into minor 
powers in state affairs. 

Religiously— that is, among the 
sects— the position of woman was 
more than subordinate. The Quak- 
ers were the only ones who ac- 
knowledged in any way the right 
of woman's voice to be raised 
within church walls. 

Therefore, when a young and 
fearless prophet arose who pro- 
claimed, as a first foundation prin- 
ciple, that women should have the 
religious franchise, and that all 
things should be done with "com- 
mon consent," one need not wonder 
at the horror that his announce- 
ment created. 

In the year 1830, in July, the 
Prophet received a revelation con- 
cerning his wife Emma, and in it 
were instructions and powers that 

Era, November 1970 43 

extended to all the daughters of 
God's kingdom. 

Herein she was told to "walk in 
the paths of virtue before me," to 
"lay aside the things of this world, 
and seek the things for a better." 
She was to "be ordained under his 
[Joseph Smith's] hand to expound 
scriptures, and to exhort the church, 
according as it shall be given thee 
by my Spirit." (D&C 25:2, 10, 7.) 

And what were the results? What 
have "Mormonism" and Joseph 
Smith done for me, for my sisters— 
for all women? 

Where would I, my sisters, my 
mother, yea, all women of this 
people, be if Joseph Smith had not 
been born, if he had not translated 
the Book of Mormon, established 
the Church, built Kirtland, Far 
West, Nauvoo, consecrated temples, 
given endowments, established 
commonwealths, and finally ren- 
dered up his own life on the altar 
of sacrifice, returning from his con- 
templated trip to the Rocky 
Mountains, to go like a lamb to the 
slaughter? Can you think where 
we would have been? You and I? 
Will your mind obey your imagina- 
tion and picture for you what might 
have been and what now is? 

Who would have established a 
splendid, independent woman's or- 
ganization, giving her every right 
to progress, advance, and grow 
along every true and natural line? 
Where would be our Relief Society, 
Mutual Improvement Associations, 
and the Primary, but for him? Our 
elective franchise in church and 
state? For Brigham Young never 
would have reached the Rocky 
Mountains, if Joseph Smith had not 
pointed the way. And if these men 
had not come, what class of people 
would have come? 

Think of it, every woman, young 
or old; ponder it well. What debt 
do you owe Joseph Smith, the 
prophet of the living God? What 
has he done for you? And how may 

we repay this debt, this obliga- 
tion? Only by love and loyalty to 
him, and obedience to the princi- 
ples which he taught. 

We remember that which is con- 
stantly before our eyes, within the 
hearing of our ears, and upon our 
lips in speech. The memory of the 
Savior himself might perish from 
the earth were he not spoken of 
and written about constantly. Why 
are the scriptures so necessary to 
the people's spiritual health? Be- 
cause they tell us of God and his 
hand-dealings on earth. And surely 
the memory of any man would 
speedily fade were not books writ- 
ten, pictures painted, and monu- 
ments erected to keep memory 

Let us talk of Joseph Smith, 
write about him, and love and 
honor him daily and hourly. 

One key: Whenever a meeting 
drags, or is spiritless, let anyone 
get up and testify to the mission of 
the Prophet Joseph Smith and see 
how quickly light will dispel the 
darkness. If a missionary in the 
field would have his mettle tested 
to the utmost, let him boldly testify 
to the truth of Joseph's message to 
the earth and to the majesty and 
power of that man. There was a 
time when it took more courage to 
testify of Christ. But now, the mere 
knowledge of him is almost cover- 
ing the whole earth, and it is easy 
to speak of him and his refulgent 
earth mission. Just now, the storm 
center of truth broods over the 
name and memory of Joseph Smith 
and his new testament of the char- 
acter and power of the Savior. It is 
because Joseph Smith testifies of 
the Christ as he is, not as he is 
supposed to be, that men hate him. 
Was not the same condition exis- 
tent in Judea nineteen hundred 
years ago? 

Then, up with the standard of 
truth, and honor and glory to the 
standard bearer, who went down to 

his grave in the battle with death 
and hell, holding that banner aloft 
as he chanted a hymn to God and 
Christ! We thank God that our 
eyes may still see, our ears still 
hear, and our lips still speak the 
praises of our "prophet, priest, and 

In conclusion, let us give some 
extracts from the teachings of this 
great man to the Woman's So- 
ciety, which he, under revelation 
from God, established on March 17, 
1842, in Nauvoo. A perusal of the 
minutes, kept by the secretary, 
Eliza R. Snow, gives a wonderful 
insight into the liberality and jus- 
tice manifested by Joseph Smith 
toward women and womanhood. 
Let young elders and bishops note 
the breadth and scope given to all 
women by the teaching of the 

One may learn more of a man's 
attitude on any question by read- 
ing what he says, himself, than by 
reading what others say about him. 
Hence it is that the reading of the 
scriptures is far more profitable 
than reading any number of com- 
mentaries and stories about them. 

Let us go to the fountainhead for 

The meeting was addressed, 
March 17, 1842, by President 
Joseph Smith, to illustrate the ob- 
ject of the society— that the society 
of the sisters might provoke the 
brethren to good works, in looking 
to the wants of the poor, searching 
after objects of charity, and admin- 
istering to their wants— to assist by 
correcting the morals and strength- 
ening the virtues of the community, 
and save the elders the trouble of 
rebuking; that they may give their 
time to other duties, etc., in their 
public teaching. He proposed that 
the sisters elect a presiding officer 
to preside over them, and let the 
presiding officer choose two coun- 
selors to assist in the duties of her 
office; that he would ordain them 

44 Era, November 1970 

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70 1/3 cup servings 

Vegetable Group 

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1 # 10 sliced carrots 

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to preside over the society, and let 
them preside just as the Presidency 
preside over the Church; and if 
they need his instructions, he will 
give it from time to time. 

President Smith gave an initial 
donation of five dollars— a gold 
piece to commence the funds of the 
society— and said that whatever he 
gave in charity would hereafter be 
given through this society. 

He then suggested the propriety 
of electing a presidency to continue 
in office during good behavior, or 
so long as they shall continue to 
fill the office with dignity, like the 
First Presidency of the Church. He 
said that all difficulties which 
might and would cross our way 
must be surmounted, though the 
soul be tried, the heart faint, and 
hands hang down. There must be 
decision of character aside from 
sympathy, and all must act in con- 
cert, or nothing can be done. He 
said that the society should move 
according to the ancient priest- 
hood; hence, there should be a 
select society from all the evils of 
the world, choice and virtuous. 

He said that they were going to. 
be left to themselves— that they 
would not long have him to instruct 
them— that the Church would not 
have his instructions long, and the 
world would not be troubled with 
him a great while, and would not 

have his teachings. He exhorted 
the sisters to concentrate their faith 
and prayers for, and place confi- 
dence in, those whom God had 
appointed to honor, whom God has 
placed at the head to lead; that we 
should arm them with our prayers; 
that the keys of the kingdom are 
about to be given to them. 

"You must put down iniquity, 
and by your own example provoke 
the elders to good works," he de- 
clared. He said that not war, not 
jangle, not contradiction, but meek- 
ness, love, purity— these are the 
things that should magnify us. 
Evil must be brought to light- 
iniquity must be purged out; then 
the veil will be rent, and the bless- 
ings of heaven will flow down. 
This society was to get instructions 
through the order which God has 
established, through the medium of 
those appointed to lead. 

Let kindness, charity, and love 
govern your work henceforward, 
the sisters were told. Don't envy 
sinners. Have mercy on them. Let 
your labors be confined mostly to 
those around you, in your own 
circles; as far as knowledge is con- 
cerned, it may extend to all the 
world, but your administration 
should be confined to the imme- 
diate circle of your acquaintance, 
and more especially to the mem- 
bers of the society. O 


By Janet Moore 

September 1945 

"Poor things," murmured Kay "Poor dears," her mother sighed, 

To Phil, as she closed the door And turned the music low, 

On her parents by the fire. "They make such work of fun, 

"Middle life's a bore. And often suffer so. 

How one must envy youth How good to have youth past 

At humdrum forty-four." Eighteen can never know!" 

46 Era, November 1970 

h©©kirt<i ba^K 

1© 8 


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Florence B. Pinnock 

Today's Family Editor 


Volume 63, November, 1960 
By Florence B. Pinnock 


On this 
Thanksgiving Day 

Let us be thankful 
for the basic things 
in our lives. 
For eyes to see- 
not just television to look at; 
for ears that listen- 
not just silver to jingle; 
for minds that explore- 
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Let us give thanks 
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and use them 
to reach 


Burl Shephard, "Today's Family" 

editor (1949-52), 

and managing editor 

of the Instructor (1965-70) 

Winter Salads 

Volume 52, November 1949 
By Burl Shephard 

• We all think of salads when the 
garden is green. Let's not forget 
them after the first frost. For the 
first rule in the book for salads is 
simply this: serve them! Serve 
them twice a day every day. 

Salads need not be elaborate, but 
they should feature raw fruits and 
vegetables, unless your doctor pro- 
hibits their use, for in this way you 
insure your family a protective sup- 
ply of life-giving elements of the 
soil in their natural state. A single 
raw vegetable may be served as a 
"finger salad" without dressing at 
one meal. Try carrot sticks, onion 
slices, cauliflower sections, green 
pepper rings, cucumber fingers, 
celery stalks, turnip or cabbage 
wedges, and apple sections ( eat the 
peelings too). 

Rule number two is: save the 
vitamins! Don't soak your salad 
vegetables in a pan of water, and 
don't prepare the salad an hour 
ahead of time and let it stand at 
room temperature. Salads are best 
prepared just before serving. 

And rule three: the salad might 
wisely be served before the main 
course as it is more certain to be 
eaten when the appetite is keen, 
especially by children. Also, it helps 
to prevent overeating of other foods 
and thus helps to control the waist- 
line. By the same token, a rich 
fruit salad is better served after the 
main course because were it served, 
earlier its high satiety value might 
lead to refusal of other foods, par- 
ticularly by growing children. 

Carrot Salads 

Shred enough carrots for the family 
salad and add: 

a. Ground or whole raisins. Serve 
with peanut butter dressing, ba- 
nana dressing, or whipped cream. 

b. y 2 cup chopped celery to each 
cup of carrots, 2 tablespoons 

minced parsley, 1 tablespoon 
minced onion. Serve with French 
dressing or mayonnaise. 

c. Chopped bell pepper, diced ap- 
ple; French or fruit dressing or 

d. Shredded pineapple, chopped 
nuts; mayonnaise. 

e. Quartered tomatoes, minced pars- 
ley or basil; sour cream dressing. 

Cabbage Salads 

To finely shredded cabbage add: 

a. Diced apple, chopped green pep- 
per, slivered almonds; mayon- 

b. y 2 cup each grated carrots, beets, 
and chopped celery to each cup 
of cabbage; chopped parsley and 
onion to taste; French dressing. 

c. Diced pineapple, banana slices, 
cut marshmallows; mayonnaise or 
fruit dressing. 

d. Celery or dill seeds, or chopped 
dill pickle; mayonnaise or French 

Apple Salads 

Fruit Medley: Cube apples, oranges, and 
pineapple. Add a spoonful of minced 
cranberries or a few pomegranate seeds 
for color. Banana dressing or honey 
French dressing may be used. 

Fruit Sections: Alternate sections of 
unpeeled red apple with grapefruit sec- 
tions on bed of lettuce or romaine. 
Sprinkle with lemon juice and honey 
mixture, or top with mayonnaise. Gar 
nish with chopped dates. 

Banana Dressing 

Place a ripe banana in a bowl and mash 
with fork until perfectly smooth. Add 
salad oil, a little at a time, beating con- 
stantly. Add lemon juice to taste, and 
more oil, stirring until thick. (Use corn, 
peanut, cottonseed, or soybean oil for 

Peanut Butter Dressing 

Slowly add 4 tablespoons cool water 
and 1 tablespoon lemon juice to 1 
tablespoon peanut butter, stirring con- 
stantly to prevent lumps. A tablespoon 
each of finely minced onion and pars- 
ley will improve the taste of the 

Honey French Dressing 

3 tablespoons salad oil 
2 tablespoons lemon juice 
1 tablespoon honey 

Beat well together, or shake in a bottle. 
Salt to taste. This is an excellent dress- 
ing for tossed green salads. Q 

Era, November 1970 49 

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Elder John A. 
Widtsoe, member of 
the Council of 
the Twelve (1921- 
1952) and editor 
of the Improvement 
Era (1935-1952) 

Volume 42, May 1939 

Does the Church 
Have a Monopoly of Truth? 

By Elder John A. Widtsoe 

Evidences and 

• Such a question reflects a com- 
plete misapprehension of the claims 
of the restored Church of Christ. 

A monopoly of truth would mean 
the possession of all available truth 
and the exclusion of those not in 
the Church from participation in 
the possession or benefits of truth. 

Nothing could be further from 
the teachings of the Church. It has 
been taught from the days of the 
Prophet Joseph Smith that the light 
of truth enlightens every man born 
into the earth. All who seek truth 
may find it, whether in or out of 
the Church. Those who seek ear- 
nestly for truth in libraries, labora- 
tories, or open nature will be 
rewarded from the inexhaustible 
fountain of truth. The author of 
truth is generous. The Church 
urges that in every clime, by all 
men, at all times, the search for 
truth be continued; for as truth 
multiplies among men, human joys 
may increase. 

However, there are many kinds 
of truth. Some truths concern them- 
selves with the physical laws de- 
termining the conditions of earth 
and the heavens, and by which 
things move and operate. That is 
valuable knowledge, which has 
given humanity many of its material 
and intellectual blessings. The dis- 
covery of such truths has called 
into being our present civilization, 
which gives light and comfort to 
the humblest home. 

There are higher kinds of truth, 
such as pertain to human conduct, 
that is, to man's manner of using 
the gifts of knowledge that have 
come to him; truths that concern 
the God of heaven and man's rela- 
tionship to his divine Father; truths 
that explain the mystery of the past, 
reveal the purpose of the present, 
and foretell the future destiny of 
man; truths that enable man, if he 
but uses them, to approach, for- 
ever, the likeness of God. 

This latter kind of truth forms the 
plan of salvation as set forth in the 
gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ. 
The gospel is a product of the mind 
and will of the Lord. It teaches 
that a divine purpose runs through 
the universe, encompassing every 
fact, law, and principle, and enliv- 
ening all the works of nature. Thus 
the gospel in its fullness becomes 
the structure or house of truth, into 
which all truth may be fitted. As 
the home of truth, the gospel claims 
all truth and places all truth in its 
proper place and position with re- 
spect to the present and future 
welfare of man. 

The truths of the gospel, as all 
other truths, are available to all 
mankind. Indeed, perhaps all men 
possess a part of this basic knowl- 
edge for their great comfort. Cer- 
tainly in every church professing 
God there is some of this higher 
truth. That is the doctrine of the 
Latter-day Saints. 

However, the gospel is operated 
on earth under the authority of the 
Lord. He placed man on earth 
and gave him the gospel. He has 
watched over the children of men 
throughout the ages of time and 
reestablished his church from time 
to time as the apostasy of man 
made it necessary. To the care of 
the Church the gospel has been 
committed with his authority, called 
the priesthood. Only the church 
possessing this authority is the com- 
plete Church of Christ, and there 
can be but one. 

The Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints possesses the 
truth relative to the true gospel of 
the Lord Jesus Christ, the one di- 
vine plan of salvation, and the 
authority to officiate in God's name 
in the upbuilding of the Church of 

There is but one gospel; there 
can be but one priesthood; there is 
but one church which encompasses 
the whole truth of the gospel. 
In that sense only does the Church 
claim to possess the full funda- 
mental truth, call it monopoly if 
you choose, necessary for full sal- 
vation in the celestial kingdom of 
God. This the Church does hum- 
bly and gratefully, keenly sensible 
of its high commission and vast 
responsibility to lead all mankind 
into a fullness of the knowledge 
leading to eternal progression in the 
presence of the Lord. O 

50 Era, November 1970 







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Spoken Word 

Elder Richard L. Evans 
of the Council of the Twelve 
Era Managing Editor, 1936-1949, 
Editor, 1950-1970 


March 1951 

There is a proverb, that says: "Believe no tales from an enemy's 
tongue." But perhaps we can believe our own examination of 
ourselves. And so, let's do a, bit of self-searching on a series of 
subjects: If you were choosing someone you had to trust, could you 
trust yourself? Would you like to meet yourself when you are in 
trouble? Would you like to be at your own mercy? If other men didn't 
put locks on their homes, on their barns, on their banks, would you 
ever walk in where you knew you had no right to walk? If there were 
no accounts, no courts, no jails, no disgrace — would you ever take 
what you knew you had no right to take? Would you serve a man 
without influence as fairly as you would a man with influence? Would 
you pay a person as fair a price for something he was forced to sell 
as for something he didn't have to sell? Would you honor an unwritten 
agreement as honestly as if it were written? If you found a lost article 
that no one else could possibly know you had found, would you try 
to return it or would you put it in your own pocket? Would you com- 
promise on a question of right or wrong? Do you talk as well of your 
friends when they aren't around as when they are? If you made a mis- 
take, would you admit it, or would you pretend to be right even when 
you knew you were wrong? Could you be trusted as well away from 
home as you could where you are known? Do you think the world owes 
you a living, or do you honestly know that you should work for what 
you want? Do you make an earnest effort to improve your performance? 
Do you try to get the job done, or have you been loafing along for 
fear you were doing too much? Would you hire yourself? Would you 
like to work for yourself? If you were your own partner, could you 
trust yourself? If your partner were to die, would you treat his family 
as fairly as if he were alive? If he lost his health, would you still deal 
with him not only justly but also generously? Let's look again, inside 
out: Would you like to work for yourself? Would you like to live with 
yourself? This is admittedly a severe scorecard. But sometimes it's a 
good thing to turn ourselves inside out and look at ourselves as honestly 
as if we were someone else. 

Domestic Diplomacy 

May 1962 

Public relations, so-called, have come to be important to both 
individualsand organizations — that is, the impression — the"image" 
— with which we are, in other minds, inseparably associated. 
Merchants, manufacturers, professional men, and many others learn 
the importance of these impressions. All this is readily recognized in 
many relationships of life. And it would seem that this should also 
be as readily recognized, or more so, at home, with those we love 
and live with in the closest of all associations — with those who mean 
the most. Are not those who belong to us, and to whom we belong, 
entitled to see the better side of ourselves — not the most formal side, 
perhaps, but the most understanding and considerate side; to hear 
our thanks, to know of our interest, share our confidences; to give 
and take, and be accommodated even at our own inconvenience? Are 
they not entitled to see us groomed and pleasant and personable; to 


receive pleasant replies, and to know, and hear, and feel our grati- 
tude and love and loyalty? Sometimes it might be well to ask our- 
selves what it wouid'be like not to be able to go home — not to have 
a place in the family circle — not to have a sense of belonging — not 
to know that there are some who share our sorrows and successes or 
who feel a personal responsibility, as if we were personally a part of 
them. God has given us no greater blessing than that of belonging to 
a loving and loyal family, of having a home, a place where we are 
welcome and understood, free from fear of being unkindly quoted; a 
place where all our interests are sincerely considered and served. Surely 
such a place deserves the best of all we can give — deserves to see and 
hear the better side of ourselves, and to receive from us a fair share 
of service in all the thousand things it takes to keep it going. Home 
deserves our consideration, our appreciation, our help, and a faithful, 
pleasant performance on our part. "God Bless Our Home" is a motto 
that once appeared on many walls. And he will bless it, and us, if we 
bless each other and serve and live and share in love and loyalty. 
Home is, or can be — should be — the nearest thing we have to a heaven 
on earth. 

Saving your marriage . . . 

November 1969 

Over and over this truth keeps recurring— that marriage and a 
happy home are the basis of a stable society and a full and happy 
life. But one of the disillusionments of life is that something once 
so precious, so promising, could turn, at times, to such incompatibility — 
and even enmity. "For a couple who have basked in the sunshine of 
each other's love, to stand by and see the clouds of misunderstanding 
and discord obscure the lovelight of their lives, is tragedy indeed." 1 
Part of the answer runs along some lines from Dr. Hubert Howe: "Why 
don't people know how to stay happily married?" he asked. ". . . What 
changes so sharply? . . . Men and women, anguished, broken, beseech 
for some way to rescue the hopes with which they set out . . . hopes 
so vivid, so sacred, . . . somebody to tell it to, somebody to do it for, 
somebody that needs you, somebody that shares. . . . What led up to 
these alleged grounds? Countless petty clashes, . . . failures to under- 
stand . . . selfishness . . . [failure to be definite and responsible in 
matters of money] . . . the habit of secrecy . . . lack of common interests 
[and activities], ... Let this drifting apart keep on, and you'll be di- 
vorced in spirit if not in court. . . . [Avoid] the growth of drabness.. . . 
Don't let your conversation sink to the dreary level of complaint, anger, 
self-pity. . . . Don't neglect the tact, politeness . . . compliments . . . with 
which you started out. Don't let down. . . . And if you catch yourself 
brooding on the fact that you've failed to find a perfect mate, just 
walk up to the mirror and demand, 'Am / the perfect mate?' Ask your- 
self over and over, insistently: 'Am / contributing my share, as a part- 
ner, to home and happiness?'" 2 Whatever the cause, whatever it 
requires, when two people of honor and honesty, of character and 
common sense, have committed themselves to marriage, saving a home, 
a family, is worth all the effort. "Winning a love once is not enough. 
Keep rewinning it. . . . In the last analysis, it's up to you to save your 

'David O. McKay, general conference address, April 4, 1969 

2 Hubert S. Howe, M.D., as quoted by Sarah Comstock, "Can't I Save My Marriage," Good Housekeeping, January 1935. 

Era, November 1970 53 

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Preston Nibley 
(1884-1966), former 
assistant Church 

Improvement Era 


Volume 29, December 1925 

Brigham Young 
in Nauvoo 

By Preston Nibley 

• Arriving in Nauvoo from Eng- 
land, Brigham Young at once 
became active in the affairs of the 
Church. The labor that he loved 
was "building up the kingdom," as 
he so often expressed it, in later 
years. It was only in spare time, 
when the Church did not demand 
him, that he looked after his per- 


sonal affairs. The Prophet Joseph 
Smith was no doubt aware of the 
sacrifices he had made, for I find 
this entry made in Brigham's jour- 
nal, nine days after he arrived 

"President Smith called on me 
at my house, when he received 
the following revelation: 'Dear 

and well-beloved brother, Brigham 
Young, verily thus saith the Lord 
unto you: My servant Brigham, it 
is no more required at your hand 
to leave your family as in times 
past, for your offering is acceptable 
to me. 

" 'I have seen your labor and toil 
in journeying for my name. 

" 'I therefore command you to 
send my word abroad, and take 
especial care of your family from 
this time, henceforth and forever. 
Amen.'" (D&C.126.) 

The permission to devote some 
time to his family was no doubt 
very welcome to him. During his 
absence in England his family had 
managed somehow with temporary 
shelter, and on his arrival home he 
found them in very uncomfortable 

He relates: 

"On my return from England I 
found my family living in a small 
unfinished log-cabin, situated on a 
low, wet lot, so swampy that when 
the first attempt was made to plow 
it the oxen mired; but after the city 
was drained it became a valuable 
garden spot. 

"Although I had to spend the 
principal part of my time at the call 
of brother Joseph, in the service of 
the Church, the portion of time 
left me I spent in draining, fencing 
and cultivating my lot, building a 
temporary shed for my cow, chink- 
ing and otherwise furnishing my 
house; and as the ground was too 
damp to admit of a cellar under- 
ground, I built one with two brick 
walls about four or six inches apart 
arched over with brick. Frost 
never penetrated it, although in 
summer articles would mildew in 
it." (Millennial Star, Vol. 26, p. 88.) 

On the 15th of August, Brigham 
was in attendance at a conference 
held in the settlement of Zara- 
hemla. The next day he presided 
at a special conference in Nauvoo. 
It was at this latter that the Prophet 

Era, November 1970 55 


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Joseph inaugurated a new order 
of Church government which 
moved Brigham a little closer to- 
ward the important position he was 
to occupy within a few years. The 
Prophet said that "the time had 
come when the Twelve should be 
called upon to stand in their place 
next to the First Presidency, and 
attend to the settling of emigrants 
and the business of the Church at 
the stakes, and assist to bear off the 
kingdom victoriously to the na- 
tions, and as they had been faith- 
ful, and had borne the burden in 
the heat of the day, that it was right 
that they should have an oppor- 
tunity of providing something for 
themselves and families. . . ." 
(Documentary History of the 
Church, Vol. 4, p. 403. ) 

Brigham, as president of the 
Twelve, now stood next to the 
First Presidency. In this capacity 
he was as usual extremely ener- 
getic. Under date of October 2, 
1841, at Nauvoo, he records the 
following in his journal: 

"I attended Conference; much 
valuable instruction was given by 
the President, Joseph Smith. I ad- 
dressed the Conference with regard 
to the appointment of suitable mis- 
sionaries, and in regard to the 
importance of teaching abroad the 
first principles of the Gospel, and 
letting alone those principles they 
did not understand; also on the 
propriety of many of the Elders 
remaining at home, and working 
on the Lord's House, and the 
necessity of more liberal consecra- 
tions and more energetic efforts to 
forward the work of building the 
Temple and Nauvoo House. The 
congregation was immense, and 
the greatest unanimity prevailed." 

(Millennial Star, Vol. 26, p. 104. ) 

And again, under the ' date of 
November 8: 

"I attended the dedication of the 
baptismal font in the Lord's House; 
President Smith called upon me to 
offer the dedicatory prayer. This 
is the first font erected and dedi- 
cated for the baptism for the dead 
in this dispensation." (Ibid.) 

Almost daily Brigham was in 
contact with the Prophet Joseph, 
whom he loved more than any 
other man, and whom he looked to 
constantly for guidance and inspira- 
tion. Here are two brief mentions 
of this association from his journal: 

Nov. 28, 1841.-"Brother Joseph 
and the Twelve spent the day in 
council at my house." 

Nov. 30.— "Met in council with 
Joseph and the Twelve at my house, 
in relation to the Times and Sea- 
sons." ( Ibid., p. 105. ) 

As the year 1841 drew to a close 
in Nauvoo, the white blanket of 
winter was spread over the land. 
Peace and prosperity reigned 
among the Saints. Verily the king- 
dom was advancing and being 
built up, due to the noble, unselfish, 
and splendid efforts of its leaders 
and members, not the least of 
whom was Brigham Young. 

Christmas Day was no doubt a 
time of rejoicing in Brigham's 
home. It was a humble little home, 
but he was there to enjoy the day 
with his wife and children, the first 
Christmas he had had with them in 
nearly three years. That he was 
also enjoying the society of his 
brethren is evident from the fol- 
lowing: "I partook of a Christ- 
mas supper with the Twelve at 
bro. Hiram Kimball's." (Ibid., p. 
118.) O 

Era, November 1970 57 

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Home Evening 

By Elder Joseph F. Merrill* 

• I have been asked, my brethren 
and sisters, to speak a few words 
about home evening, a topic that 
has been discussed in this taber- 
nacle a number of times in the 
past. It does seem strange that we 
are so forgetful, that we are so 
careless and indifferent, and that it 
is so necessary to remind us con- 
tinually of what is for our good. 
This, perhaps, is not because we 
do not believe; not because we are 
not in sympathy with what we 
are advised, instructed, and urged 
to do, but because of conditions by 
which we are surrounded. 

Under the best of circumstances 
life, with the average man and 
woman, is strenuous; there is a 
struggle; duties and obligations are 
numerous; we have much to do; 
and because of these conditions, 

"Remarks by Dr. Joseph F. Merrill at the 
quartely conference of the Granite Stake, 
Sunday, August 26, 1917. 


we sometimes are unable to do 
what we perhaps would like to 
do, because we are weary or be- 
cause there are other things that 
more or less interfere. 

I do not know how many of you 
Latter-day Saints remember, as I 
very vividly remember, when this 
topic was presented to us a num- 
ber of years ago. We were promised 
that if we would observe home 
evening faithfully and diligently, 
no member of our family would 
ever be lost; there would be in the 
homes of the people of this stake 
of Zion a peace and love, a purity 
and joy, that would make our home 
life ideal; the fathers and mothers 
would have such influence for good 
with their children that they would 
have the indescribable joy of seeing 
them faithful and true and grow 
up pure and remain pure, and their 
feet would be preserved from the 

snares and pitfalls of the evil one. 

Notwithstanding these promises, 
and notwithstanding the fact that 
we have urged the observance of 
home evening in the wards of this 
stake, there is no question but that 
at the present time there are few 
people who observe it. And yet, I 
know, my brethren and sisters, that 
those who have truly observed it 
can testify that there have come 
to their homes great blessings. But 
strange to say— even those in charge 
of ward affairs sometimes forget. 
And so we have public meetings 
of various kinds arranged on home 
evening, when it was the advice 
that every Latter-day Saint family 
spend that evening at home, and 
that public meetings and affairs be 
placed at other times. 

It makes no difference what we 
might think or do, there is a respon- 
sibility of parenthood that we can- 
not escape. (See D&C 68:25-28.) 
It cannot be placed on other shoul- 
ders. And if we are sincere and 
true, if we believe the gospel of 
Jesus Christ, we must know that 
there is no reponsibility that is 
greater than the obligation we have 
assumed in our families. The 
father must be true, faithful and 
loyal, devoted and sincere and full 
of fidelity to his family— to his wife 
and children, true to those de- 
pendents pulling upon his heart- 
strings. His whole life must be 
sincerely devoted to them. He must 
not be unkind; he must not be im- 
patient and overbearing; but he 
must manifest the spirit of patience 
and gentleness and love. He must 
treat his wife as his companion and 
friend and helpmate; he must treat 
his children as the nearest and 
dearest objects to him in life. And 
the mother also must remember the 
obligations that she has to her 
husband and children; and the 
children must remember the obli- 
gations that they have to their 

Era, November 1970 59 


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Joseph Smith and early Church history. Several 
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article deals with an era marked by social, polit- 
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in the restoration of the Church. J J QQ 


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And so, my brethren and sisters, 
if we will fully make our home life 
as the gospel teaches us to do, it 
seems to me we can find one eve- 
ning a week when the family will 
assemble around the hearthstone 
and make this the most pleasant 
and profitable time of the whole 
week. And if fathers in the spirit 
of fatherhood, and mothers in the 
spirit of motherhood, and children 
in the spirit of obedience, will only 
accept this advice and observe this 
evening, there will come to the 
home an influence and joy that 
otherwise will not be there. 

Of course, some families are 
large and the children range from 
infants to adults, having various 
kinds of responsibility; hence it is 
difficult to find a time when all can 
be together. But, I remember one 
of the old sayings, and I believe it 
to be true, that where there is a 
will there is a way. Can it be that 
during the whole week there is no 
single hour when we could culti- 
vate the love of our family and 
teach them, understand them, enter 
into sympathy with them? That 
parent that is not one with his 
children is not enjoying his family 
as he might, and he does not have 
the influence that he might. It is 
possible for fathers and mothers to 
be close to their children. It is pos- 
sible for them to be the confidants 
of their children, having the chil- 
dren come to them with their joys, 
their sorrows, and their troubles. 

Now, my brethren and sisters, 
you may not feel that these matters 
are very important. But we believe 
them to be most important. We 
believe we must be awake, as we 
have never been awake, to stamp 
out evil and the tendencies toward 
evil, and we should all work in 
every way possible as we have 
never worked before. The evil one 
is working in various ways. As his 
time grows shorter and shorter," his 
efforts are being more and more 


increased; and so, unless we are 
active and on the alert, we shall 
find that we are being trapped in 
ways we do not know and do not 
suspect. Therefore, we feel that 
it is necessary that we shall pray 
and that we shall work and that we 
shall accept the advice given us. 

My brethren and sisters, in every 
home in this stake of Zion we 
should like to have Monday evening 
observed as home evening. There 
would be no objection to branches 
of the family— married sons and 
daughters— meeting with the rest 
of the family. Will we not develop 
this practice among us until it 
grows into a habit? Some have not 
felt a particular need for this. Some 
have felt that their children are 
grown and only the parents remain. 
But whether the family be large or 
small, composed of old or young, 
or of both, it is possible to have a 
program of songs, stories, games, 
readings, experiences, instructions, 
prayers, etc., that shall be enter- 
taining and profitable to all. 

Even though there are, for one 
reason or another, no children, the 
home evening may still be profit- 
able. Is there any husband so in- 
different and forgetful that he has 
ceased to court his wife? There was 
a time when an evening with her 
alone was counted as the most 
beautiful evening of the week. That 
husband is certainly an object of 
pity who has ceased to court his 
wife. He has let the sweetness of 
life go out of his home. In fact, 
his home has ceased to be a home. 
It is only a place to live. Where 
love is not, there can be no home. 

Hence, so far as I can see, there is 
no reason why we should not spend 
this evening with our family in 
pleasure and profit and joy. If we 
will do it there will come into our 
homes love and unity and the spirit 
of peace and satisfaction that can- 
not, and will not, otherwise be 
there so abundantly. O 

Era, November 1970 61 

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Volume 16, June 1913 

Booker T. Washington's Views of the 

Booker T. Washing- 
ton (1856-1915), 
American Negro 

Booker T. Washington's 
Views of the Mormons 

• The famous Booker T. Washing- 
ton, who recently [1913] visited Salt 
Lake City, has written an article for 
the New York Age (April 17), the 
leading Negro newspaper of the 
United States, in which he tells 
about his visit to Salt Lake City. 
Among other things he declares 
that the Mormons have been mis- 
represented, and that the worst of 
the Mormon life is generally adver- 
tised. We quote from his long 
and interesting account: 

"The 'Mormon' Church was first 
organized in New York state only 
eighty-three years ago. From 150 
[143] people, hardy pioneers, who 
entered Utah sixty-six years ago, 
the number has grown year by year 
until in Utah there are now over 
300,000 'Mormons,' and they have 
certainly made the desert blossom 
as the rose. I have never been 
among a more healthy, clean, pro- 
gressive set of people than these 
people are. All through Utah they 
have turned the desert into gardens 
and orchards. Wherever one finds 
a 'Mormon' colony there he finds 
the evidence of hard work and 
wealth. . . . 

"From the first the 'Mormons' 
constantly and persistently pursued 
the policy of having their people 


get hold of land, to settle on the soil 
and become farmers. The 'Mormon' 
leaders knew that if they once got 
possession of the soil and taught 
their people how to become suc- 
cessful farmers that they would be 
laying the foundation so secure 
that they could not be dis- 
turbed. . . . 

"Like the negro, the 'Mormons,' 
I am sure, have been misrepre- 
sented before the world. I have 
learned by experience and observa- 
tion that it is never safe to pass 
final judgment upon a people until 
one has had an opportunity to 
get into the real life of those 
people. The negro is suffering to- 
day just as the 'Mormons' have suf- 
fered and are suffering. . . . No 
person outside a group of people 
can ever really know that race or 
that group of people until he gets 
into their homes, and gets a chance 
to observe their men, their women, 
and their children, and has a 
chance to partake of their hospi- 
tality and get into their inner life. 

"There are many people today 
who consider themselves wise on 
the condition of the negro who are 
really afraid to go into a negro 
home, who never go into a negro 
church or Sunday school, who have 

never met colored people in social 
circles, and hence such people 
know little about the moral stan- 
dards and activities of the colored 
people. The same, I am convinced, 
is true regarding the 'Mormons.' 
The people who speak in the most 
disrespectful terms of these people 
are those who know least about 

"I am convinced that the 'Mor- 
mons' are not an immoral people. 
No immoral people could have such 
strong, fine bodies as these people, 
nor such vigorous, alert minds as 
they. It has been my privilege to 
address schools and universities in 
nearly every part of America, and 
I say without hesitation that I have 
never addressed a school anywhere 
where the students were more alert, 
more responsive, more intelligent 
than is true of the students of these 
'Mormon' colleges. I was hardly 
prepared for the over-generous and 
rapturous reception that was given 
me at the state university, the stu- 
dents of which, for the most part, 
are 'Mormons,' and I had the same 
experience in addressing the private 
schools and other institutions con- 
ducted by 'Mormons.' . . . These 
'Mormons' have first-class schools, 
and they are pushing the matter of 
technical and industrial education 
to a stronger degree than we are in 
the South. . . . The 'Mormons' have 
recently begun a systematic effort 
to give their people training in 
gymnastics, with a view to strength- 
ening their bodies. I think it will 
interest my readers to know that 
there are colored 'Mormons' in 
Utah. I met several of these. Many 
of them came here in the old days. 
In fact, Brigham Young brought 
colored people with him to this 
country, and they or their descen- 
dants have remained. ... I met one 
colored man who came out here in 
the early days. He is now eighty- 
two years of age. He is a staunch 
'Mormon.' He came here from 
Mississippi." O 

Era, November 1970 63 



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Elder Hugh B. Brown 

of The Council of the Twelve 

(1958-61, 1970-) 

Counselor in the First 

Presidency, 1961-70. 

J^ Citadel Within 

& wtttfL to ieldmkA. 

about IfatVi, own. fVtwate. ialik. 






Volume 45, December 1942 

By Elder Hugh B. Brown 

Coordinator of Latter-day Saint Men 
in the Service in World War II 

• They who served in World War 
I, though now unable to participate 
in combative units, are among the 
most interested of the spectators 
who watch from the sidelines. They 
note the new and improved mech- 
anized equipment as well as the 
revolutionary strategy and tactics 
employed. They would not attempt 
to give military advice, for the folly 
of applying the rules of 1917 to the 
operations of 1942 would cost thou- 
sands of lives and humiliating 

However, there are some con- 
stants in life which remain fixed 
whether one is in military or civilian 
activity and regardless of age. Of 
these we should speak, for the ex- 
perience of the past belongs to the 

Rather than address the youth of 
1942, let the man of today talk to 
himself as one of the soldiers of 
1917. Let him attempt, through his 
own eyes twenty-five years later, to 
see the road ahead of that young 
soldier. He might say something 
like this: 

You, young man, have answered 

the call of your country. You offer 
to her your time, your talents, your 
strength— your life. How well 
equipped are you as you present 
yourself for this service? What do 
you bring to the task and what 
do you propose to take out of it? 
You have passed your physical 
tests, but what of your intangible 
internal fitness? 

First, there must be undeviating 
loyalty. Your country is in war. 
She has called for your help. She 
is faced by cruel and cunning foes 
who seek her destruction. You will 
not give less than wholehearted, 
enthusiastic support to the national 
effort. While your right to free 
speech is one of the things for 
which you fight, your intelligence 
will regulate the exercise of that 
right. You'll listen more and talk 

You will obey orders, submit to 
discipline, become a part of a great 
military organization— how impor- 
tant a part is largely up to you. 

Into this new experience you 
bring yourself— your physical, men- 
tal, moral, spiritual self. You bring 

also your ideals, principles, aspira- 
tions, hopes. You bring all these 
into a new and strange environment 
where there will be terrific impact. 
To some the environment will be 
used as an excuse for weakness, for 
abandoning their course of life and 
yielding to the down-drag of a 
murky current. Others will see in it 
a challenge to their strength and 
will face that challenge as man- 
fully as they will face the foe on 
the battlefield, realizing that to 
yield here is as cowardly and in- 
famous as to be untrue or traitorous 
when entrusted with a military as- 

If you would give your best to 
your country, you must maintain 
your highest standards and ideals. 
You will bring out of the struggle 
a stronger man or a weaker one, 
according to the fidelity with which 
you guard the citadel of your inner 

You find yourself in uniform, 
one of millions, and may feel that 
your identity has been lost, that 
you are just a number, or perhaps 
a cipher. You will be tempted to 

64 Era, November 1970 

. . . you gave her a 

A food reserve is normal everyday food in adequate 

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extended period of time. 

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Robert Hemingway 

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Millard C. Haymore 

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Richard Morgan 

4279 Penn Mar 

El Monte 91732 
Guy E. Davis 

10424 Owl Circle 

Fountain Val. 92708 
Bill Pier 

3634 W. 107th 

Inglewood 90301 
Dean Judd 

4271 Camino Paz 

La Mesa 92041 
David Tucker 

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Sacramento 95670 
Lon Swenson 

1313 Arcadia 

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Boise 84700 
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Box 204 

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Hurricane 84737 
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become a fatalist and adopt a 
"don't care for consequences" atti- 
tude. Every day's work will be 
outlined, every effort regimented. 
You will listen to shouted com- 
mands and curt orders and will find 
your freedom restricted as never 
before. You will be inclined to feel 
that you are no longer the master of 
your fate and will wonder if you 
are wholly subject to the whims and 
caprice of chance. 

You must resist this inclination to 
lower your guard. In spite of the 
complete regimentation of your life 
and the interruption of your plans 
by this sudden reversal of things, 
you must hold on to the truth that 
you are still, in large measure, the 
master of your fate. Keep faith in 
yourself, in your destiny; keep your 
hand upon the controls of your 
life. You are still in command of* 
your own spirit. 

Do not believe that some bomb 
or. shell has your number on it and 
that it will get you regardless of 
what you do or refrain from doing, 
for with this thought too often goes 
the query, "What difference does it 
make what I think or say or do? 
Why not 'eat, drink and be merry, 
for tomorrow we die'?" You shall 
not die tomorrow! You shall live. 
Most of the men who go to war 
live to return home. No shell has 
your number on it. No bullet is 
marked for you. Most of them are 
marked "To whom it may con- 
cern," and most of them are wasted. 
Live, then, each day as if you were 
confident of returning to your home 
and loved ones and let that thought 
light your pathway and color your 

Having decided to keep control 
of the course of your life, you must 
make decisions daily. You must 
choose, elect,, decide. Each deci- 
sion implies a knowledge of values. 
Your good sense would not allow 
you to pay ten thousand dollars for 
a Model T Ford. Your pride will 

not permit you to be cheated if you 
know it. Before you close any deal, 
you will count the cost. If you are 
sure the thing offered is worth the 
price, if you are sure you will be 
satisfied with your bargain next 
month, next year, and always, then 
take the offer. But be very sure 
you are not being deceived by the 
vendor. The first payment may 
bear little relation to the final cost. 
Often men go on paying long after 
the item is worn-out and useless or 
has become hateful and abhorrent. 

I need not remind you that you 
must pay for what you get, that 
you must reap what you sow, 
that the law of the harvest is in- 
exorable, that the temporary grati- 
fication of an appetite, though it 
may amount to ecstasy, must not be 
the criterion of value. 

In business we sometimes write 
off bad deals and forget them, but 
many of life's bargains are for time 
and eternity. Many of them must 
be paid for on the installment plan, 
and as you go on paying through 
the years, you will experience pride 
and gratitude or sorrow and shame, 
depending upon the wisdom of 
your choice. 

You will be tempted to consider 
some of the prohibitions with which 
you have become familiar at home 
as old-fashioned and out of focus 
with modern times. You will be 
told that to continue to observe the 
standards of conduct which have 
guided your life thus far is to admit 
a lack of maturity, is evidence of 
childishness. A slight deviation 
from the line of conduct which you 
have believed to be right may be 
called trivial and of little conse- 
quence. Looking back from 1942, 
we can see that the point of depar- 
ture from the highway of conduct 
marked the beginning of a detour 
for some which took them far from 
the goal for which they so coura- 
geously set out. 

When an airman is taught to fly 


Y Christ, c 
*n*«ad, gree- 


how to answ£ g R ospEL 

Side A 

Tape 1 
( T-1> 


- . , ■. • -.. 

. -aW 

*' A ,*;, ******* 
t>fttience- ^ baVe fcer pert 

Wfc greeting,. . , h n ye fell into tel'S * 

€lv ers temptations;^ 

. imi iMlTEC 
353 6. 4th So., 

m m_ 

.wmob are ecattered \}£Sft 

How to answer objections to the Gospel. 


Make no mistake about it! If you 
expect to shake the skeptic . . . reach 
the timid . . . impress the sophisticate 
. . . you must be conversant with 
scripture to answer objections to the 
Gospel. It is as President David 0. 
McKay said: "The missionary's duty is 
to know the scriptures." 

And so it is, then, that a few of us 
returned missionaries got together to 
form Missionary Work Unlimited* so 
that we could help you answer some 
real basic objections to the Gospel and 
to inspire you to become a greater 
scriptorian. To help you to declare to 
the world the restoration of the. 
Gospel of Jesus Christ . . . the divinity 
of life, death and resurrection of our 
Lord and Savior. To help you to tell it 
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We have used the fabulous cassette 
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on a beam, he will not be tempted 
to go it blind by some promise of 
thrills or new adventure. He knows 
that there is only one course to 
follow if he would be safe, and 
looks upon him as an enemy who 
would seek to divert his course and 
lure him away from the beam 
which is his safety. Fly the beam, 
pilot, for the headquarters from 
which it comes will guide you 
safely to a happy landing. 

In this new adventure you will 
need courage— not only courage to 
meet the enemy who is visible but 
also courage to meet and vanquish 
enemies more subtle and more per- 
sistent, more insidious and more 
deadly, and of these I warn you. 
Have courage, then, to make your 
choice, and then pray for stamina 
to stand by that choice. He who 
loses courage will not long defend 
the other virtues. 

You who started your life struc- 
ture on the foundation of the Ten 
Commandments and the Beati- 
tudes may be somewhat bewildered 
as in this awful business of war 
you are taught how to kill. The 
very cornerstone of your moral 
structure is respect for the lives and 
rights of others, and when you see 
the word "not" stricken from the 
injunction "Thou shalt not kill," 
you may find difficulty in attempt- 
ing to uphold any of the other 
moral standards. Remember this: 
the archenemy of life has set out 
to destroy the human family, has 
enlisted human agents to assist in 
his purpose. That purpose must 
be resisted. Force must be em- 
ployed to conquer force. But 
through it all you must not forget 
your obligation to your fellowmen, 
your relationship to them. They are 
all sons of God. Hate must not get 
into your heart. You must not be 
degraded by the business at hand. 
You must remember that you are 
going to return home, become a 
part of civilized society, build a 

home, and rear a family. You must 
remember that twenty-five years 
hence you may have sons. Above 
all else you will, at that time, be 
grateful to God if they can safely 
follow in your footsteps. 

Yes, young man, you are going 
off to war, and it's up to you 
whether you win it or lose it. Re- 
gardless of the outcome between 
the nations, you yourself have a 
battle to fight, and all who know 
and love you believe you're going 

to win it. They know you will not 
let them down. They who connect 
your name with the name of God 
each day have confidence in your 
quality, in your integrity, in your 
fidelity, your purity of thought and 
purpose, your loyalty to your coun- 
try. They know you will be true to 
yourself and to them with God's 

Keep your hand in his, and may 
you have the wisdom and the 
courage to follow. O 

Spoken Word 

January 21, 1951 



By Richard L Evans 

There is a proverb that says: "Believe no tales from an enemy's 
tongue." But perhaps we can believe our own examination of our- 
selves. And so, let's do a bit of self-searching on a series of sub- 
jects: If you were choosing someone you had to trust, could you 
trust yourself? Would you like to meet yourself when you are in trouble? 
Would you like to be at your own mercy? If other men didn't put 
locks on their homes, on their barns, on their banks, would you ever 
walk in where you knew you had no right to walk? If there were no 
accounts, no courts, no jails, no disgrace, would you ever take what 
you knew you had no right to take? Would you serve a man without 
influence as fairly as you would a man with influence? Would you 
pay a person as fair a price for something he was forced to sell as for 
something he didn't have to sell? Would you honor an unwritten agree- 
ment as honestly as if it were written? If you found a lost article that 
no one else could possibly know you had found, would you try to 
return it or would you put it in your own pocket? Would you com- 
promise on a question of right or wrong? Do you talk as well of your 
friends when they aren't around as when they are? If you made a mis- 
take, would you admit it or would you pretend to be right even when 
you knew you were wrong? Could you be trusted as well away from 
home as you could where you are known? Do you think the world owes 
you a living or do you honestly know that you should work for what 
you want? Do you make an earnest effort to improve your performance? 
Do you try to get the job done or have you been loafing along for 
fear you were doing too much? Would you hire yourself? Would you 
like to work for yourself? If you were your own partner, could you trust 
yourself? If your partner were to die, would you treat his family as fairly 
as if he were alive? If he lost his health, would you still deal with him 
not only justly but also generously? Let's look again, inside out: Would 
you like to work for yourself? Would you like to live with yourself? 
This is admittedly a severe score card. But sometimes it's a good thing 
to turn ourselves inside out and look at ourselves as honestly as if we 
were someone else. 

Era, November 1970 69 

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"Thy Speech 
Bewrayeth Thee " 

By Albert L. Zobell, Jr. 

Research Editor 
Volume 45, May 1942 

* One of the most severe chastisements 
that the Lord ever placed upon man was 
the confusion of tongues. Overnight the 
corrupt government crumbled, the folly 
of building the Tower of Babel was at 
an end, and those who were congenial 
neighbors became hostile toward each 
other. Seeking companionship, small 
groups speaking the same new languages 
went out by themselves to colonize. With 
one swift blow at his language, man was 
humbled and scattered. (See Gen. 11.) 

During one of the battles between the 
Gileadites and the Ephraimites, the 
Jordan River became the first line of 
defense. The Gileadites took the bridges 
spanning the river and challenged anyone 
who dared pass with the question: "Art 
thou an Ephraimite?" and if he said, 
"Nay," he was further challenged with: 
"Say now Shibboleth." And forty-two 
thousand Ephraimites, unable to pro- 
nounce the first syllable (for they said 
Sibboleth) were discovered and forfeited 
their lives. (Judg. 12:5-6. Italics added.) 

The apostle Peter could not success- 
fully deny his Christ because of his 
speech. As he began to deny any knowl- 
edge of him for the third time, Peter was 
confronted with: "Surely thou also art 
one of them; for thy speech bewrayeth 
thee." (Matt. 26:73. Italics added.) 

As in the days of Babel, as in the. days 
of the wars of Ephraim, as in the days of 
Peter, we are constantly judged by our 
habits of grammar and pronunciation. 
Today it is easy, with the use of the tele- 
phone and radio, to judge a person by 
his speech alone without ever seeing him. 
Good speech bespeaks good manners. 
Whatever we say, let's say it correctly, 
lest our speech betray us. Q 

70 Era, November 1970 

We still like people better than 

At Southern Utah State we're 
small enough that you are 
more than a number, in 
fact, you are an individual with 
talents and abilities and the 
opportunity to use them. 

Because of our size and our 
modern, expanding facilities, 
you get the advantages of a 
small school plus the experi- 
ence and quality you expect 
from a large school. Things 
like student government, 
music, drama, sports and all 
of the other things that make 
college great are here for you 
to be a part of, not just to 

The environment at SUSC is 
clean and friendly. The com- 
munity is interested and help- 
ful. The LDS Institute program 
is progressive and actively 
concerned about your needs. 

If you are interested in being 
a part of the action and in 
keeping the YOU in EDUCA- 
TION, check us out. 

est four year school 



Our full academic accredi- 
tation means that you can 
be exposed to the best in 
education. Not only does 
the faculty know what they 
are doing, but they care 
about it and about you. 

We offer over thirty majors 
in degree work and many 
vocational programs de- 
signed to help you in select- 
ing and meeting your 
interests and abilities. 
Such an academic atmos- 
phere puts you ahead in 
any field you choose. 


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Please send me: 

General Catalogue ($1) [J 

Admission Forms fj 

Financial Aids Information fj 

Housing Information [J 





Mail to: SUSC Information Services 
Cedar City, Utah 84720 

Covers from the Past 

By Ralph Reynolds 

Improvement Era Art Director 

Throughout the years, Era covers have reflected 
the graphics of the period, changes in styles of maga- 
zine format, as well as styles in clothes, art, photog- 
raphy, and architecture. The covers have also 
reflected the printing technology of the period. 

It is almost unanimous among the artists on the 
present design staff that the July 1933 cover, using 
the United States flag and an Avard Fairbanks 
sculpture (number 9) is the most striking and one of 
the best designed covers ever done for the Era. 

There was a period in the 1930s when works of 
sculpture were very popular Era covers. The works 
of Mahonri Young, Avard Fairbanks, Torlief Knaphus. 
and others were widely exposed when Era readers 
saw the reproductions of their beautiful art. The 
November 1934 cover (number 10), featuring the 
"Tragedy of Winter Quarters" by Fairbanks, is an 
example of how beautifully a dramatic photograph of 
a fine piece of sculpture lends itself to a cover. 

Another period saw reproduction of many scenic 
color photographs by some of the best view photog- 
raphers of the area. Perhaps the most repeated 
photographer of this group was Lucien Bown of 
Chester, Utah. 

We have some definite favorites in covers, and 
usually they are the ones that show a break from the 
usual, things that are strikingly fresh, such as the 
black and white photograph of President McKay 
(number 58), the exploded view illustration of the 

Salt Lake Tabernacle (number 75) by Gerreld Pul- 
sipher, the fish-eye photograph of the Tabernacle by 
Robert Perine (number 64), the six views of Nauvoo 
and the Mississippi, early engravings by Piercey 
(number 61). 

Although we're not the Saturday Evening Post, we 
have run one Norman Rockwell illustration as a cover, 
(number 42). Several other modern-day, non-Mormon 
illustrators and painters have been reproduced, in- 
cluding Ken Riley, Stan Galli (number 73), Harry 
Anderson (number 71), and John Falter; and many 
Mormon artists have had their work reproduced, 
including John Hafen, J. T. Harwood, John Clawson 
(number 37), Alvin Gittins (number 34), Arnold Fri- 
berg (numbers 41, 42, 59), Dennis Smith (number 
70), and Ed Fraughton. Several other artists have 
painted commissioned works expressly for the Era. 
Some of these are Ed Maryon (number 57), Gaell 
Lindstrom (number 60), Dale Kilboum (numbers 66, 
72), Ev Thorpe (number 54), Harrison Groutage, 
Jerry Thompson (number 69), and Farrell Collett. 

The influence of artists Fielding K. Smith (number 
19), Paul Clowes (numbers 7, 8), and Nelson White 
(number 40) can be seen and their contributions to 
the Era should be noted. 

Everyone has his own favorites, but from an art 
and content point of view, the design staff feels that 
the covers on these pages are the most interesting 
and significant. O 



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"In the Hr^nmrK;" j«{*r i»l fr.rtun < m Ihi ( n 

William George 
Jordan (1864-1928), 
American journalist 

as a Fine Art 

By William George Jordan 

Volume 13, September 1910 

• Forgetting is one of the fine arts 
of living at our best. It is not that 
phase of nonremembering, where 
a name or a date or a fact has not 
strength enough to keep itself from 
sinking deep into memory's sea of 
oblivion. Fine forgetting means 
character asserting itself— not mind 
losing itself. It is the blue pencil 
of wisdom— cutting out unnecessary 
words from the text of our living. 
It is individual kingship determin- 
ing what thoughts it will permit to 
reside in its kingdom. It is the 
exclusion act of the soul— ejecting 
the unworthy and the undesirable. 
A great editor once said: "The true 
secret of editing is to know what 
to put into the wastebasket." For- 
getting is the soul's place for 
losing discarded thoughts, depress- 
ing memories, mean ambitions, 
false standards, and low ideals. 

All the virtues, vices, and quali- 
ties of mental and moral life may 
be defined in terms of forgetting 
or of remembering. Selfishness is 
forgetting others in over-remember- 
ing self. Worry is the inability to 
forget the troubles that may never 
happen. Honor is remembered 
high standards made evident in 
acts. Anger is the explosion of an 
overheated memory. Forgiveness is 
the heart's forgetfulness of an in- 
jury. Ingratitude is the heart's for- 

getfulness of a favor. Habit is the 
memory of acts, making repetition 
easier. Mercy is the memory of 
human weakness tempering justice. 
Envy is forgetting one's own pos- 
sessions in over-remembering those 
of others. Influence is the remem- 
bered acts of one inspiring the acts 
of others. Patience is forgetting 
petty troubles along the way in 
concentrating thought on the goal. 
Love is the heart's sweetest memo- 
ries shrined in another. 

Forgetting as a fine art has two 
distinct phases: learning how to for- 
get and what to forget. Forgetting 
is the heart's eclipse of a memory. 
It is so easy to say lightly to some- 
one suffering from a memory, "Oh, 
just forget it all." Those of us who 
have sought honestly and bravely 
to fight it out on the silent battle- 
field of the soul know that forget- 
ting is never easy. If it were, there 
would be neither credit, courage, 
nor strength in mastering it. Those 
people who tell you moral battles 
are easy really know nothing about 
it, care nothing, or they are getting 
ready to tell you they have just 
remembered an appointment and 
must say "good-bye." It is a real 
fight, but we can win in the end— 
if we are not afraid of a quick, hard 
fight. It is better than a long siege 
of remembering that lasts for years. 

Keeping the world from knowing 
our pain or struggle by veiling our 
sorrow with a smile, seeming to 
forget, is fairly easy; but this is not 
real forgetting. The biggest souls 
find it hardest to forget. Trained 
forgetting is paradoxic. We cannot 
forget by trying intensely to forget 
—this merely deepens and gives 
new vitality to the memory. True 
forgetting really means finer mem- 
ory; it is displacing one memory by 
another, by a stronger one, an 
antidotal one. It means concen- 
trating on the second phase so that 
the first is weakened, neutralized, 
and faded out like a well-treated 
ink-stain. It is removing a weed 
from the garden of thought, and 
then planting a live, sturdy flower 
in its stead. It is cultivating new 
interests, new relations, new activi- 
ties. Time helps wonderfully, espe- 
cially when we go into partnership 
with her. 

If we learn to forget wisely and 
unselfishly in the trifles of our daily 
living with others, we shall silently 
accumulate higher pressure reserve 
power for our own later needs. Let 
us forget thorns of daily living in 
remembering roses of its possibility; 
forget things that pain in remem- 
bering unnoted reasons for thank- 
fulness; forget the weakness of 
those around us in seeking to dis- 

Era, November 1970 81 

cover wherein they are strong. Let rest for a little from his work of 
us forget the disappointments in pinning new medals on the chest 
the courage of new determination; of self -approval. He should forget 
forget the little wrong we have his unworthy vanity by recalling 
suffered from our friend, in living his own hard struggles and the 
again in the memory of his many part that chance, patronage, favor, 
kindnesses; forget the things that or even questionable cleverness, 
depress in concentrating on those has had in incubating his prosper- 
that exalt. Fine forgetting is an ity. He may then gladly extend the 
attempt at finer justice. It means helping hand he now withholds, 
aggressive living— on the uplands We often let an act of the long 
of truth and light. ago poison our present living; we 
The man who lets the really great remember when we should forget, 
things of life— love, honor, duty, There are things done in the in- 
trust, friendship, loyalty, justice— experience of youth, in moments of 
selfishly slip away from him for the unreason, acts of many years ago, 
mere gratification of a moment or that have livid scars in thought, 

a mood, has no right at first to 
forget. His first duty is to see that 
he has not been keeping his con- 
science under the ether of self- 
apology. He must realize the 

that sting and canker, that discour- 
age and deaden purpose, depress 
our moral vitality, dim our mental 
vision, and dull our energy. We 
should let the dead past bury its 

wrong, and do all in his power to dead. We should put them forever 
right it. Then in his new strength out of life and thinking. If we have 

the petty things will lose their 
treacherous charm. They will fade 
into the dim recess of forgetfulness 
where they belong, luminant, in- 

There are moments when a man 
rejoices that he is living, that he is 
yet able to do the right thing he 
disdained— to fill someone's life 
with roses, clear someone's path of 
sorrow. He has the new oppor- 

made all reparation possible, let us 
consider them as the acts of some- 
one else— a weaker self that is now 
dead, not the self that lives today, 
the one we are seeking to make 
finer and better. Let us make our 
new self more than a monument to 
a dead past. Let it be to us a 
prophetic tablet to the greater self 
we are preparing. 

Remember and think of past 

tunity of doing a big man's work in folly, mistakes, sin, and sorrow only 

a great, simple, self-forgetful way. long enough to repair, to atone and 

He who listens gleefully to scan- to avoid. Then forget the yester- 

dal, turns it over meltingly on the days of sadness, shame, wrong and 

tongue of appreciation, and then 
syndicates it with supplementary 
chapters of his own guessing, re- 
peats it until it becomes a stained 
tattoo in memory. His ears should 
be debarred from listening and his 

failure in the soul's concentration 
on the new, fresh, clean days for 
higher, truer living, making each 
new day but the prelude to a new, 
better tomorrow. 

Forgetting is the hardest lesson 

mind taught to forget by thinking of life, and it is never so hard as 

deeply of the pain such scandal 
would give to him, were he or 
someone dear to him the victim, 
innocent or guilty. 

He whose success has made him 
hard, selfish, intolerant, and criti- 

with the memories of the emotions. 
Our bitterest moments of living are 
when we drape our sweetest memo- 
ries in black because they belong 
to a past that is dead forever. 
There are highlights of remembered 

cal, who has no patience with those joy that overcome us with madden- 
who have not succeeded, should ing pain, harder to bear than any 

actual sorrow, past or present. 
There are memory cells that we 
long to identify, to individualize 
and to isolate from the millions of 
their fellows in the brain and to 
kill as the electric needle deadens 
the life of an individual hair-cell. 

"Sorrow's crown of sorrows," says 
Tennyson, "is remembering happier 
things." Long, hard sorrow is a 
sickness of the soul, from which in 
time we may gradually emerge. 
Nature gently leads us back to 
health in our days of emotional 
convalescence by helping us to for- 
get and by giving us new memories 
to remember. Memory is a mental 
force we cannot kill, but we can 
direct, we can give it new subjects 
to act upon, new right engines of 
purpose to move, new channels 
into which to run. 

There are sometimes petty frac- 
tures of our pride, irritating inci- 
dents that hurt perhaps because we 
are nervous. They loom large be- 
fore us. For the time each seems as 
big as a real sorrow or loss. If we 
cannot master, it may be as well 
to surrender it just for a little, to 
think it out, to talk it out, to get 
it out as much as possible from the 
emotional system. Then we should 
cease to think and to talk; we 
should learn to forget, avoiding 
situations and conditions that revive 
the pain, seeking right work and 
association that lead from it. Then 
even a great cankering sorrow will 
be conquered. If found unworthy 
we shall find it silenced forever in 
our hearts and dead in our memory. 

Let us seek to begin each new 
day in the consciousness of our 
crown of individuality as serene 
and calm as though it were a new 
life, with nothing of the old remain- 
ing but its wisdom, its sweet 
memories, its duties, its responsi- 
bilities, and the hope, joys, privi- 
leges, and love of the old that life 
has bequeathed to us. O 

°From The Crown of Individuality. Copyright, 
1909, by Fleming H. Revell Company. 


Volume 31. April 1928 

The Political Responsibility of 
Latter-dst} Saints 

Elder Me/v/'n J. 
Ballard, member of 
the Council of the 
Twelve (1919-1939) 

The Political 


of Latter-day Saints 

By Elder Melvin J. Ballard 

• It is indeed strange to hear, in a republic, of some 
who boast that they have nothing to do with politics; 
but it is stranger to hear of leading men who feel that 
this attitude is a proper one. In the light of the gospel 
teachings, is this attitude correct? The Lord has given 
us positive instructions to see to it that we select wise 
men to make and administer the laws. And .it is still 
true, as in the days of Solomon, that "when the wicked 
rule, the people mourn." In the United States espe- 
cially, where complete rights of suffrage have been 
given to the entire people, there arises a sacred re- 
sponsibility, binding upon every member of the 
Church, to honor and magnify his political rights. 
Church members who are aliens should become 
naturalized citizens in the countries where they in- 
tend to make their homes, so that they may have a 
voice in the enactment of the laws and in their en- 

In Section 134 of the Doctrine and Covenants, we 
are shown that civil officers and magistrates are neces- 
sary to enforce the law; and that those who will ad- 
minister the law in equity and justice should be sought 
and upheld by the voice of the people. Now, here 
are the steps necessary to secure these wise officers: 

In the first place, mass meetings are held by the sev- 
eral political parties for the selection of delegates who 
are to attend the conventions that are to nominate 
these officers. These meetings, it frequently happens, 
are poorly attended. As a rule, only those who have 
special interest in certain candidates participate. This 
condition makes it easy for any combination of per- 
sons to secure a majority at the mass meetings, and, 
thereby, to control the conventions. 

There is only one way by which the consequences 
of this great evil can be averted. The people must 

attend these mass meetings. The will of the people 
may then be expressed in the selection of delegates 
who attend conventions, who, in turn, nominate candi- 
dates for whom the people are to vote. This great 
reformation the Latter-day Saints can assist in making, 
simply by attending the meetings of the political party 
for which they have a preference. It is the right of 
the people to give delegates instructions as to the 
character of men they are finally to nominate for 
office. After their nomination, when the candidates 
are submitted to the people for their votes, there 
should be perfect freedom on the part of all electors 
to look over the entire group and to select men who 
themselves are living in accordance with the law and 
who are in favor of its strict enforcement. It is the 
duty of every church member to secure the election 
of the best officers. This duty becomes another requi- 
site to defeat those who are unworthy, for only the 
electors can see to it that good men are elected. 

When responsible men have been elected, a founda- 
tion has been laid upon which we may build; but our 
responsibility must continue. We must sustain and 
support the laws that our representatives enact, and 
we must uphold the hands of those who enforce the 
law. There is no doubt that we have many unneces- 
sary laws, or that a campaign should be commenced 
to eliminate certain statutes. Unnecessary laws only 
encumber the books, delay justice, and complicate the 
situation. But we should keep clearly before the 
people the fundamental requirements for peace and 
order; and, as long as we have a law, it is the duty of 
every member of the community to support it. 

One basic principle in carrying into effect the 
Constitution of our country was early recognized— the 
right of the majority to rule. We must stand by that 

Era, November 1970 83 

principle or we shall presently come into serious diffi- 
culty. The will of the majority, when expressed in 
law, is sacred and must be respected and obeyed by 
the minority. No matter how much they dislike any 
given law, as long as they desire to remain loyal citi- 
zens, all are under obligation to abide by the will 
of the majority expressed in law. As these questions 
come up for reconsideration, citizens have the right to 
appeal to the public and to endeavor to induce the 
majority to think their way; but, as long as it stands, 

it is the duty of all men, whether they like it or not, to 
uphold and support the law. If they cannot do this. 
they are not loyal citizens. 

The position of the Church itself is a splendid 
example. In the contest we had over the constitution- 
ality of certain laws prohibiting the practice of plural 
marriage, we continued that contest until the court 
of last resort declared the law constitutional. Then 
we were given a chance to prove our patriotism and 
our loyalty. With the approval of the Lord, we sub- 



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mitted to the law of the land, letting it stand supreme. 
Through strict adherence to that regulation, we mani- 
fest our willingness, no matter how much we may 
have disagreed with the interpretation of the officials, 
to uphold and support the law. We thus set a shin- 
ing example before the people of the whole country. 

Let others act likewise toward those laws which they 
themselves do not wholly favor. If they cannot 
find it possible to live in harmony with the laws that 
they dislike, they have the liberty to go elsewhere. 
Or, if they can gain a majority of the votes, they can 
establish laws that they are willing to support. Other- 
wise, they should remove to some other land or coun- 
try that better suits their notions. 

Members of the Church are under obligation to 
furnish information against violators of law; and, as 
witnesses, they are bound to give any evidence they 
have that will bring the guilty to justice. We are under 
obligation to aid, to the utmost of our ability, the 
officers who are engaged in the enforcement of the 

law. We should give sympathetic support to judges 
who have the courage to execute the law in justice; 
otherwise, we may weaken their influence and defeat 
the ends for which our laws have been established. 
Our greatest contribution to this desirable end will 
be our own determination to live within the law, and 
thus make it sacred through our example. 

When politicians discover that the people will turn 
out in mass to the primaries, their hope of controlling 
delegates in their own interest will disappear; and 
whenever political conventions discover that the 
people will carefully discriminate in their selection of 
officers, choosing only those who live within the law 
and who are pledged to support it— those whose lives 
and characters are above reproach— then will political 
parties fear to put up for election men who are un- 

If the people will only exercise their privileges as 
American citizens, they will find in their own hands 
the power to correct our present evils. O 

Wait Not 
By Sarah E. Mitton 

September 1923 

Wait not till tomorrow, for time is not ours, 
Today is appointed to gather life's flowers. 
Wait not till tomorrow, its daivn may ne'er come, 
Today is the time to bring joy to the home. 

Wait not till tomorrow to comfort a friend, 
Today is the day your kindness to lend; 
Wait not till tomorrow your good words to say, 
Tomorrow may fail you, your chance is today. 
Wait not till tomorrow to offer your prayer, 
Heaven's not too encumbered to list to your prayer 
Wait not till tomorrow all wrongs to amend, 
For death may o'ertake you, who knoweth the end? 

Nothing Is Lost 
By Helen Maring 

April 193 % 

There is no death for anything that's good; 
There is no death for any beauty known. 
Nothing is lost within this shady wood — 
And water endures, and sky and wind and stone. 
There is no death for perfect love; no grief 
For any heart that loves beyond the span 
Of mere infatuation . . . And the brief 
Loveliness of day lives, as does man. 

There is no death for any beauty sought- — 
For music, poesy, and art are long; 
And all of life, and all of faith have taught 
That echo touches farther than the song. 
Each good, each beautiful, each lovely thing 
Endures — and that is why the heart 'must sing. 

Era, November 1970 85 

Dr. G. Homer 
Durham, commis- 
sioner and executive 
officer, Utah 
System of Higher 

Volume 60, September 1957 

The Mormon 

Contribution to 



By Dr. G. Homer Durham 

• In today's world, Mormonism, so- 
called, may be viewed in two 
aspects. One is with reference to 
its relationship to the rest of the 
Christian world and to the Chris- 
tian religion in general. The second 
has to do with the contribution it 
has for the non-Christian world, 
ranging from western existentialists, 
Communists, atheists, and agnostics 
to the great religious systems of 
Asia, Africa, and elsewhere. This 
second aspect presents a peculiar 
problem, namely, how to present 
the story of the restoration to in- 
dividuals who do not accept and 
have, in many cases, never heard 
of the Bible. How the message 
will be taken to the followers of 
Buddha, to the devotees of Hindu- 
ism and of Islam, however, is only 
the indirect subject for this writ- 
ing. More directly, what con- 
tribution has Mormonism for the 
professing Christian? If this is un- 
derstood, something of the char- 
acter of the restored gospel can be 
discerned against the general field 
of religion and non-religion. 

Mormonism, in this sense, may 
be said to have three basic con- 
tributions to modern religion. They 
may be summarized as contribu- 
tions to what Christian scholars 
call (1) the Christo logical and 
Trinitarian questions; (2) the 

anthropological question; and (3) 
the ecclesiastical question, or the 
matter of organization. 

The Trinitarian and Christologi- 
cal controversies have plagued his- 
toric Christianity since the second 
century a.d. The Council of Nicea 
in a.d. 325 attempted a solution in 
terms of the Nicene Creed. The 
rupturing of the Christian com- 
munity, already far-advanced, was 
only further emphasized by this 
and subsequent ecumenical coun- 
cils of the ancient church. 

The existence today of the 
Armenian, Eastern Orthodox, Nes- 
torian, Ethiopian, Coptic, Roman 
Catholic, and other Christian 
churches (not to mention the Prot- 
estant offshoots of Roman Catholi- 
cism since the Middle Ages) 
demonstrates lack of success in 
reaching agreement. To some the 
Father and the Son were identical, 
with the Holy Ghost a second party. 
To others the Father and Son were 
separate, though consubstantial (of 
one substance), with the Holy 
Ghost emanating from both rather 
than being a separate entity. In 
some groups, Mary was Theotokus 
(the mother of God). In others 
she was merely Christotokus (moth- 
er of Christ ) , while in yet others she 

was both Theotokus and Christo- 
tokus at one and the same time! 

The first vision of the Prophet 
Joseph Smith, and subsequent reve- 
lations, restored clarity and sim- 
plicity in the place of this confusion. 
The first Article of Faith states the 
simple truth in plain language, re- 
storing common sense to the most 
fundamental controversy in Chris- 
tendom. Many members of the 
Church do not realize the tremen- 
dous historic significance of the 
work of Joseph Smith in this regard. 


Toward a solution of the knot- 
ty "anthropological question," the 
Church has a similarly simple but 
profound answer. It is found in the 
second Article of Faith: "We be- 
lieve that men will be punished for 
their own sins, and not for Adam's 
transgression." (Italics added.) 

The "anthropological question" is 
the centuries' old issue in Christian 
theology with respect to the nature 
of man. Just as the question as to 
the nature and character of Deity 
vexed Christendom, so did the issue 
as to man and his nature. Most of 
the Christian world follows St. 
Augustine and his answer to the 
anthropological question, namely, 
that man is a product of "original 
sin," that he is corrupt, evil, and 

86 Era, November 1970 



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predestined to the ills of sin and 
the flesh except as rescued by di- 
vine grace; that man's history 
begins merely at birth, or at best 
conception; and that his prospects 
are pessimistic, except for grace. 
Into this confusion in which the 
western world had wallowed for 
1,500 years the Prophet Joseph 
Smith brought the glorious doctrine 
that "man was also in the begin- 
ning with God" (D&C 93:29); that 
"the elements are eternal, and 
spirit and element, inseparably con- 
nected, receive a fulness of joy" 
(verse 33); and that instead of 
committing a heinous crime, for- 
ever bedeviling humanity, "Adam 
fell that men might be; and men 
are, that they might have joy" 
(2 Ne. 2:25). Thus man can be 
optimistic and not be cursed with 
Augustinian "original sin." Instead 
of being a worm, however, "As God 
is, man may become." (President 
Lorenzo Snow.) 


This clarification of the nature of 
God and of man provides the basis 
for the third great contribution, 
namely, the nature and character 
of the Church as a great social 

If God is a great personal being 
and Christ his real Son (demon- 
strating to other sons and daugh- 
ters how a life may be lived); if 
man's true nature (having been "in 
the beginning with God") is clear, 
then solutions can also be found 
for the ancient problems of church 

i The church is not an ecclesiastical 
dictatorship. It is not a pseudo- 
system of divine-right monarchy 
designed to enslave its members, 
to dwarf them by fear, superstition, 
or priestcraft. On the other hand, 
neither is it a drifting, rudderless 
human association, beset by an- 
archy, disorder; without shape or 
meaning. It is not merely God's 

church nor Christ's church, nor is 
it the church of any man or men. . 

As its name reveals, it is The 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- 
day Saints. It is the church of both 
Jesus Christ and the people, the 
members, the Latter-day Saints. Its 
ecclesiastical polity or form of gov- 
ernment is neither a monarchical 
one nor a democratic one. It is a 
blend of both. 

As Joseph Smith wrote in Times 
and Seasons, April 15, 1844: "I go 
emphatically, virtuously, and hu- 
manely, for a Theodemocracy, 
where God and the people hold the 
power to conduct the affairs of men 
in righteousness." ( Italics added. ) 

Thus the priesthood of the 
Church is freely conferred on all 
worthy male members, and its 
blessings fully shared, including 
the highest blessings of the tem- 
ples, by the women of the Church. 
And although the fifth Article of 
Faith states, "We believe that a 
man must be called of God, by 
prophecy, and by the laying on of 
hands, by those who are in author- 
ity to preach the Gospel and ad- 
minister in the ordinances thereof," 
it is also fundamental in the practice 
of the restored Church that "no 
person is to be ordained to any 
office in this church, where there is 
a regularly organized branch of the 
same, without the vote of that 
church. . . ." (D&C 20:65.) Also 
that "all things shall be done by 
common consent in the church. . . ." 
(D&C 26:2.) 

Thus the restored Church in its 
polity is neither episcopal (ruled 
by bishops ) , presbyterian ( ruled by 
elders), nor congregational (ruled 
by the congregation ) . But all three 
principles mesh and combine and 
constitute a unique and remark- 
able ecclesiastical polity, one that 
provides adequate authority with- 
out destroying individual freedom 
and liberty. Thus the Church's 
claim to "divine authority" is not a 

claim to dictatorial, authoritarian, 
or arbitrary rule. 

We claim that "the rights of the . 
priesthood are inseparably con- 
nected with the powers of heaven." 
But the same scripture imposes the 
basic limitation "that the powers 
of heaven cannot be controlled nor 
handled only upon the principles of 
righteousness." We can be or- 
dained, "but when we undertake to 
cover our sins, or to gratify our 
pride, our vain ambition," or to be- 
come dictatorial ("exercise control 
or dominion . . . upon the souls of 
the children of men, in any degree 
of unrighteousness"), then the 
priesthood and authority of that 
man is withdrawn. Or, as this basic 
scripture, which involves the "con- 
stitutional law" of the Church, re- 
cites: "Amen to the priesthood or 
the authority of that man." (See 
D&C 121:36-46.) 

Thus the basic law of the Church 
reflects fundamental doctrines with 
respect to the nature of God and 
man. The glory of God is intelli- 
gence, and men should strive to be 
like God. The pattern for human 
relations set for the Church should 
become a model for the human re- 
lations of all society: 

"No power or influence can or 
ought to be maintained by virtue of 
the priesthood, only by persuasion, 
by long-suffering, by gentleness and 
meekness, and by love unfeigned." 
(D&C 121:41.) 

If the nations of Europe, Asia, 
Africa, America, and the islands of 
the sea would follow this pattern, 
we could visualize a new world. 
This, then, is the second aspect of 
Mormonism in the modern world: 
to bring the message of God's and 
man's nature, of the nature of or- 
ganization, to the world so that no 
power or influence is maintained 
except by persuasion and by love 
unfeigned. This is a large order to 
fill, in which every member must 
play an intelligent part. O 


Era, November 1970 89 

Dr. Lowell L. 
Ben n /on, associate 
dean of students 
and professor of 
sociology, University 
of Utah 

The Fruits of Religious Living in This Life 

By Dr. Lowell L. Bennion 

• "Ye shall know them by their 
fruits. Do men gather grapes of 
thorns, or figs of thistles?" Each 
tree produces its own kind. What 
fruits may one hope to pick if one 
plants a tree in the garden of re- 
ligion? This question demands an 
answer for all those who would 
judge religion by its earthly harvest. 

A short time ago a Gleaner girl 
made this confession: 

"Two months ago I had faith; I 
was happy in my religion. Every- 
thing seemed just right to me. Then 
my father became ill and died, leav- 
ing my mother and several small 
children. We had prayed for him; 
we needed him, but he went. And 
now, something has gone out of my 
life. I have lost the strong testi- 
mony that was mine." 

A young man recently made this 
statement: "My father has worked 
all his life for the Church. He is as 
honest as any man who ever lived. 
In fact, he is too honest. Men have 
taken advantage of him. During 
the last few years he has lost the 
little bit that he did have. I can't 
see where his religion has helped 
him any." 

We meet with people of all ages 
and various experiences who have 
become disillusioned about religion. 
Among them are sons of pioneers, 
converts from the old country, 







Volume 44, April 1941 

young people who have been reared 
in the organizations of the Church 
—good, sincere individuals— who 
feel that they have been deceived, 
that religion is not what it is pur- 
ported to be. The difficulty some- 
times lies in the fact that religion 
has been misrepresented to them, 
leading them to expect the wrong 
thing from religious living. 

The two stories related above 
represent the two most common 
misconceptions of the fruits of re- 
ligious living. The first is that 
religion will save man from all suf- 
fering, sorrow, and disappointment 
in life. Religion, thus conceived, is 
a guardian angel who steers life's 
ship over smooth seas. But religious 

history and teachings prove that 
life is not that, and that religion 
makes no such promise. 

The book of Job has as a moral 
that man should not deny God even 
though he suffer loss of family, of 
property, and is sorely afflicted. 
One hundred thousand Jews died in 
defense of things sacred to them as 
Syrians and Romans desecrated 
their sanctuaries. Early Christians 
suffered repeated persecutions unto 
death because of their faithfulness 
to the cross. John Huss, Savonarola, 
and others lost their lives in defense 
of religious truth. The Huguenots in 
France, the Puritans in England, the 
Jews the world over have suffered 
because of religious conviction. 


No Latter-day Saint should forget 
the lives that Mormonism has cost 
to date. In the history of the Mor- 
mon church, men have endured 
almost every form of persecution 
and privation that man and the 
elements can impose. Joseph Smith 
experienced this in both life and 
death, giving fervid expression to 
it in his prayer recorded in Section 
121 of the Doctrine and Covenants. 

Religion literally leads men to 
places where sorrow, suffering, and 
difficulties abound. Jesus came to 
share the burden of the sinner, to 
minister unto the sick and afflicted, 
to comfort those who mourn, which 
means, in effect, to share the bur- 
dens of life, and he said unto his 
disciples. "Go thou and do like- 
wise." "Feed my sheep." 

The religious life is not a fairy- 
land existence that promises es- 
cape from the realities of life, but 
rather a life that shares responsi- 
bilities in the most vital of life's 
process. It is not a flight from the 
world either in thought or deed. 

Jesus makes this clear in his Ser- 
mon on the Mount: 

"Therefore whosoever heareth 
these sayings of mine, and doeth 
them, I will liken him unto a wise 
man, which built his house upon 
a rock: 

"And the rain descended, and 

the floods came, and the winds 
blew, and beat upon that house; 
and it fell not: for it was founded 
upon a rock. 

"And every one that heareth 
these sayings of mine, and doeth 
them not, shall be likened unto a 
foolish man, which built his house 
upon the sand: 

"And the rain descended, and the 
floods came, and the winds blew, 
and beat upon that house; and it 
fell: and great was the fall of it." 
(Matt. 7:24-27.) 

All those who base their lives on 
the teachings of Jesus build their 
house upon a rock. Those who do 
not, build their house upon the 
sand. Note this, that both houses 
receive the same punishment. The 
rain descends, floods come, and 
winds blow and beat upon both 
houses. The difference is that one 
withstands the onslaught, the other 
does not. 

The Master said to his beloved 
disciples: "I send ye forth as sheep 
among wolves." And they found 
out that his words were true as they 
laid down their lives for him. To 
Ananias, who objected to the bap- 
tism of Saul of Tarsus, the word 
came : 

"Go thy way: for he is a chosen 
vessel unto me. . . . For I will 
shew him how great things he 

must suffer for my name's sake." 
(Acts 9:15-16. Italics added. ) 

No, religious living does not in- 
sure us against all tragic experi- 
ences in life. Religious people die 
like everyone else. They become 
involved in accidents not of their 
own volition or fault. Sometimes 
they suffer things that the carefree 

Rut religion does spare one from 
much suffering. The keeping of the 
Word of Wisdom in its fullest sense 
will help to keep one physically fit 
and better able to resist disease 
and physical and mental strain. In 
prayer, faith, and administrations 
to the sick, religion offers one 
unique aid to health. 

Most of the suffering and sorrow 
man experiences is not physical, but 
mental and spiritual. It is here that 
religion makes perhaps its finest 
contribution. The enemies of good 
mental health are based largely on 
a wrong conception of the place of 
self in the world. The religion of 
Jesus gives man the true conception 
of self in relation to other selves. 
The religious man is spared the life- 
destroying attitudes of envy and 
jealousy that result from selfish- 
ness; the hatred and licentiousness 
which follow from a want of sym- 
pathy and reverence for life; and 
the fear, worry, and anxiety which 

Era, November 1970 91 

spring from ignorance, wrong- 
doing, and a lack of proper per- 

The second misconception illus- 
trated by the statement of the 
young man is that religious living 
will make one prosperous. There is 
justification and evidence for this 
point of view. It is a belief held by 

'The second 
misconception is that 
religious living will 
make one prosperous. 

the Hebrews, Book of Mormon 
peoples, the Puritans, and Latter- 
day Saints. 

History has vindicated this belief 
in certain religious groups. Book 
of Mormon history repeatedly testi- 
fies to the prosperity that followed 
righteous living. The followers of 
John Calvin, particularly the Pur- 
itans of Holland, England, and 
America, who were the preeminent 
creators of our modern industrial 
order, were greatly inspired by re- 
ligious beliefs and practices. The 
Jains and Parsis, two small sects of 
India, are the most prosperous of 
the native people of India. Their 
prosperity is attributed in large 
measure to their religious way of 
life. The religious influence on the 
economic status of Latter-day Saints 
has long been apparent. 

The gospel of Jesus Christ does 
and should produce prosperity 
in two ways: first, by develop- 
ing the well-named economic 
virtues— industry, honesty, integ- 
rity, punctuality, thrift, and fru- 
gality. These inevitably lead to 
financial success, other things be- 
ing equal. Second, a religious phil- 
osophy of life gives good direction 
to one's expenditures. Earnings are 
invested in the home, educational 
and cultural advantages for chil- 

dren, physical, mental, and social 
health, and are not dissipated in 
channels that are destructive of or 
indifferent to man's truest needs. 

But people will be disappointed 
in religion if they think that it 
guarantees one a rich share in the 
material goods of the earth, that 
one of the chief functions of religion 
is to make people wealthy. The 
fruits of religion cannot be mea- 
sured in material terms. History 
records the ironical paradox that 
even when religion led to pros- 
perity, this, in turn, tended to un- 
' ' dermine the religious spirit. This 
was true of Puritan and Nephite 
history. It is also evidenced in the 
lives of many individuals. 

It was certainly not the primary 
purpose of God to make the Latter- 
day Saints prosperous when he di- 
rected them to leave the fertile 
lands of Ohio and Illinois, poten- 
tial commercial and manufacturing 
centers of great magnitude, to 
struggle with the physical hard- 
ships of the Rocky Mountain coun- 
try and its more restricted types of 
economic endeavor, compared with 
the East, the Pacific Coast, and the 
Great Lakes regions. 

Motives more important than ma- 
terial interests led Brigham Young 
to develop agriculture rather than 
mining in the West, resulting in the 
acquisition of the greatest sources 
of wealth here by non-Mormons. 
Then, too, much of the wealth pro- 
duced by the Latter-day Saints goes 
into (economically speaking) non- 
productive channels, such as mis- 
sionary work, temple work, the 
erection and maintenance of beau- 
tiful houses of worship, recreation 
halls, charity, and religious edu- 

There are a dozen better reasons 
for paying tithing than the hope of 
material blessings in return— the 
spirit of making a trade with the 
Lord. Love of God, a sense of shar- 
ing in his work and purposes, loy- 

alty to his Church, love of service 
to fellowmen, the love of giving, 
the joy of practicing unselfishness 
are more noble and more blessed. 

Yes, religion reaches down and 
permeates our material well-being, 
and indirectly leads to happiness 
and success in this important phase 
of life. Yet, let it be remembered 
that the Lord "maketh his sun to 
rise on the evil and on the good, 
and sendeth rain on the just and 
on the unjust." ( Matt. 5:45. ) Let no 
one measure the fruits of religious 
living primarily in dollars. It is not 
fair to the purposes of religion. 

In one of the most beautiful 
chapters in sacred literature (Alma 
32), Alma pleads with his people 
to plant the seed of faith with this 

". . . behold, it will begin to swell 
within your breasts; and when you 
feel these swelling motions, ye will 
begin to say within yourselves— It 
must needs be that this is a good 
seed, or that the word is good, for 
it beginneth to enlarge my soul; 
yea, it beginneth to enlighten my 
understanding, yea, it beginneth to 
be delicious to me." (AX. 32:28. 
Italics added. ) 

Then, comparing the religious 
life with a tree, Alma writes : 

"But if ye will nourish the word, 
yea, nourish the tree as it beginneth 
to grow, by your faith with great 
diligence, and with patience, look- 
ing forward to the fruit thereof, 
it shall take root; and behold it 
shall be a tree springing up unto 
everlasting life. 

". . . behold, by and by ye shall 
pluck the fruit thereof, which is 
most precious, which is sweet above 
all that is sweet, and ivhich is white 
above all that is white, yea, and 
pure above all that is pure; and ye 
shall feast upon this fruit even un- 
til ye are filled, that ye hunger not, 
neither shall ye thirst." (Al. 32:41- 
42. Italics added.) 

In 2 Peter 1:5-8 we read: 


". . . giving all diligence, add to 
your faith virtue; and to virtue 

"And to knowledge temperance; 
and to temperance patience; and to 
patience godliness; 

"And to godliness brotherly kind- 
ness; and to brotherly kindness 

"For if these things be in you, 
and abound, they make you that ye 
shall neither be barren nor un- 
fruitful in the knowledge of our 
Lord Jesus Christ." ( Italics added. ) 

Paul enumerates the fruits of 
religion in Galatians 5:22-23: 

"But the fruit of the Spirit is love, 
joy, peace, longsuffering, gentle- 
ness, goodness, faith, 

"Meekness, temperance: against 
such there is no law." 

Among the most delicious fruits 
of religious living are things spiri- 
tual, as these writings testify. They 
relate to the mental and moral life 
of man; and where is life with its 
possibilities of either joy or misery, 
if not in the mind? 

Religion opens up a new world 
to man. The truly religious person 
becomes identified with law. He 
learns to thrill in the satisfaction 
that comes from freely living in 
harmony with God's laws. To love 
fellowmen, to hold life in rever- 
ence, is no more a duty, but a 
passion that needs to be satisfied. 
And such a man, hungering and 
thirsting after righteousness, will 
surely be filled. 

Religion will not preserve man 
from all sorrow and suffering, nor 
necessarily make him prosperous, 
but it does promise him the precious 
fruits of the spirit— peace, joy, love, 
and a meaningful life. And that 
promise holds for today, as well as 
for tomorrow. 

It is also clear from the context 
of these writings that these fruits 
of the spirit are to be tasted and 
enjoyed in this life as well as in 
eternity. O 

Era, November 1970 93 

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-NotuAoA Goa Svu/cce- 

Woman's Place 

in the 

Forward March 

of the Church 

Marba C. Josephson 
formerly associate 
managing editor of 
the Improvement Era 

Volume 50, July 1947 



■ifffjaHftj^'Vl : 

By Marba C. Josephson 

• Who shall say who played the 
most important part in the hundred 
years that have passed since the 
pioneers entered the valley of the 
Great Salt Lake? Men's names 
come immediately to mind because 
their work is that of recorded his- 
tory. The story of the women 
behind those men is rarely told 
and more rarely recorded. And yet 
behind nearly every man whose 
name assumed greatness stands a 
woman whose untold power helped 
make him what he became. 

Women endured the rigors of the 
trail along with the men, and in 
addition gave birth to children 
who would bear the heritage of 
faith. And this ordeal occurred 
under almost every variety of 
circumstances imaginable, except 
those to which the women had 
previously been accustomed. 

Eliza R. Snow said: "Many of 
our sisters walked all day, rain or 
shine, and at night prepared sup- 
pers for their families with no 
sheltering tents, and then made 
their beds in and under the wagons 
that contained their earthly all. 
How frequently, with intense sym- 
pathy and admiration, I watched 

the mother, when, forgetful of her 
own fatigue and destitution, she 
took unwearied pains to fix up, in 
a most palatable form, the allotted 
portion of food, and as she dealt 
it out was cheering the hearts of 
her homeless children, while, as I 
truly believed, her own was lifted 
to God in fervent prayer that their 
lives might be preserved, and, above 
all, that they might honor him in 
the religion for which she was an 
exile from the home once sacred 
to her, for the sake of those pre- 
cious ones that God had committed 
to her care." 

Woman's first concern must ever 
be the home, for without it all 
civilization will fail, and if civiliza- 
tion fails, the Church itself cannot 
survive. Hence, it is of no small 
importance that the General Au- 
thorities stress the need for women 
to train themselves for wifehood 
and motherhood as the greatest of 
all careers. Through motherhood 
women make their most important 
contribution to the world as a 
whole and to the Church in par- 
ticular. When women fulfill their 
destiny, their husbands become re- 
spected members of the community, 

doing their work well and giving 
of their time and energy to improve 
the conditions of the place in which 
they dwell; their children become 
respected members of their school 
and neighborhood and Church 
communities— and grow to a well- 
adjusted maturity, keeping so busy 
in wholesome activity that they 
have no time to indulge in those 
actions which would tend to make 
them delinquent. 

Thus, to Latter-day Saints the 
foremost concern of women of all 
time is the welfare of those in their 
homes, and the greatest ideal for 
Latter-day- Saint women consists 
in the rearing of respectable, God- 
fearing families. 

But there are those, even among 
Latter-day Saints, who perhaps 
may not marry, or, having mar- 
ried, may unfortunately be denied 
the right of motherhood. They have 
great capabilities that turned to 
use can help other mothers prob- 
ably not so gifted. Many of these 
women labor as teachers, as social 
workers, as nurses, as writers; and 
their abilities, their aptitudes help 
better the community through the 
sublimation of their mother love. 


which, being denied the logical 
culmination in physical mother- 
hood, impels them to become 
mothers of the community. 

There are other women whose 
abilities have made it possible for 
them to rear their own children 
well and still have enough energy 
and capability to turn their minds 
to other activities outside the four 
walls of their homes, to the benefit 
of the world and the lasting satis- 
faction of the women themselves. 
The classic example from biblical 
times is Deborah, who originated, 
so far as we know, the proud title, 
"a mother in Israel." Deborah 
undoubtedly was a most gifted 
woman, in addition to being a 
mother, for the Bible records, "And 
Deborah, a prophetess, the wife of 
Lapidoth, she judged Israel at that 
time." (Judg. 4:4.) 

The Latter-day Saint women re- 
call with a great deal of pride that 
in a time when women were con- 
sidered as chattel by most countries 
of the world, and Blackstone tried 
to assure this inferior position to 
women, the Church of Jesus Christ 
accorded woman a place with man, 
recognizing that without woman 
man could not attain his full sta- 
ture. They recall also that when 
the Lord created Eve he said, "I 
will make an help meet for him." 
And the definition of the word 
"meet" means suitable, fitting, and 
they are content. 

To enumerate the great women 
of the Church, either past or pres- 
ent, would of necessity be to elimi- 
nate many whose names may shine 
with equal lustre. But the names 
of all of them will probably never 
be known. Their deeds have trans- 
ferred themselves into the lives of 
those whom they have touched, 
but their stories have passed into 
the shadow of oblivion, from which 
it may be impossible to resurrect 
their deeds until the last judgment 
day when the unknown shall be 
known and the unhonored, honored. 

Women have entered success- 
fully into most if not all the fields 
into which men have entered. To 
each of these professions women 
have made their own particular 
and peculiar contributions. In the 
early days when the throes of 
childbirth were so stark and tragic 
that even strong men quailed be- 
fore the ordeal, woman's humani- 
tarian qualities came to the front 
to make her do that which she could 
to ease her sisters' suffering and 
curtail the infant mortality which 
had reached such staggering pro- 

Even at the time when doctoring 
was considered exclusively a man's 
field, Brigham Young "called" cer- 
tain women to enter this field. In a 
conference session of 1873, Presi- 
dent Young stated, among other 
things: "If some women had the 
privilege of studying, they would 
make as good mathematicians as 
any man. We believe that women 
are useful not only to sweep houses, 
wash dishes and raise babies, but 
that they should study law ... or 
physics. . . . The time has come for 
women to come forth as doctors in 
these valleys of the mountains. . . ." 
What that call meant, only the 
women themselves could tell— pio- 
neering into a man's field, leaving 
home and loved ones in order to 
follow the profession to which they 
wished to dedicate their lives. In 
the medical schools of the East, 
these women were looked down 
upon as something less than women 
so to demean themselves as to 
enter schools where heretofore only 
male students had been in atten- 

Back home again, they had often 
to defend themselves from men 
doctors of their own faith who de- 
cried women's following so unusual 
a profession. But women's hearts 
were tender toward those who suf- 
fered, and they resolved to temper 
that suffering to the best of their 
innate sympathy and their careful 

Era, November 1970 95 

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training. Their hearts refused to 
harbor the thought that disease and 
death should strike mothers and 
innocent children. They studied 
diligently methods for curtailing 
epidemics and fighting contagion. 

In the field of letters and the 
arts Mormon women are certainly 
deserving of honor. At a time when 
women in other parts of the world 
were so dubious about appearing 
under their own names that they 
assumed men's names when they 
wrote, Eliza R. Snow was publish- 
ing poetry that stirred the hearts of 
men and women. Emma Smith, 
wife of the Prophet, was collecting, 
at the Prophet's express request, the 
hymns of Zion that all, men and 
women alike, might sing praises to 
their Creator. From that time to the 
present women have been inter- 
ested in music, some making it a 
career, others being content to en- 
joy its cultural influence in their 
homes or communities. 

The challenge for the women of 
the Church is as great today aswas 
that which faced the early-day pio- 
neer women of the Church. Impor- 
tant new frontiers still wait to be 
conquered by the courageous de- 
scendants of the pioneer woman. 
These new problems lie well within 
a woman's sphere: the brotherhood 
of man, because man does not sense 
the full import of this belief; world 
peace, because man has a com- 
bative nature that the mothers of 
men must sublimate to good; and 
the fatherhood of God, for women 
as the children's earliest teachers 
have the golden opportunity to lay 
this foundation securely in the 
hearts and minds of the new gen- 

We women of today must not 
fail— dare not fail— our foremothers. 
And if we do not fail, our descen- 
dants can be as proud of us as we 
are proud of our mothers and 
grandmothers. O 

By Blanche Kendall McKey 

January 1930 

And it will bring you back — 

The burst of spring, 

The low sweet calling of the whip-poor- 

And you will see the star above the lake 

And watch the fire-fly dance below the 

The throbbing of your heart-song hushed 
and still. 

Oh, it will bring you back — 

The burst of spring; 

The garden-folk a-dance ivith joy set free, 

The oriole a-singing in the tree, 

The little path a-gleaming in the sun 

To welcome one 

Content awhile to stay. 

Beside the branch the oriole is swinging — 

But I shall be too far away, 

Too far away 

To hear his singing. 


Let This Be Heaven 
By Harrison R. Merrill— 1894-1938 

November 1935 

Harrison R. Merrill 
formerly managing 
editor of the 
Improvement Era 

Oh, God, let this be heaven — 
/ do not ask for golden streets, 

Or long for jasper walls, 
Nor do I sigh for pearly shores 

Where twilight never falls; 
Just leave me here beside these peaks, 

In this rough western land, — 
/ love this dear old world of thine — 

Dear God, you understand. 

Oh, God, let this be heaven — 

/ do not crave white, stainless robes; 

I'll keep these marked by toil; 
Instead of straight and narrow tvalks 

I love trails soft with soil; 

y* 1 «,-*^% 


I have been healed by crystal streams, 
Which fall from snow-crowned peaks 

Where dawn burns incense to the day 
And paints the sky in streaks. 

Dear God, let this be heaven — 
/ do not ask for angel wings, 

Just leave that old peak there 
And let me climb till comes the night — : 

/ want no golden stair. 

Then, when I say my last adieu . 

And all farewells are given \i 

Just leave my spirit here somewhere—^ 

Oh, God, let this be heaven! * 

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Volume 41, February 1938 
WjesStK PIONEER iffiS 

;;- humor;; 

:■ "»•"-' »r —*><-.>.-. HARRINGTON aX 




By Judge Daniel Harrington 

(1860-1943), Utah jurist 

EsisHsii SSSSfSff* S»HS5S 

• While the Utah pioneers of 1847 
and those immediately following 
were a serious-minded people, on 
occasion they dealt with and en- 
joyed many fine phases of humor 
and repartee. 

There is the story told of a per- 
son who got the impression that 
President Brigham Young had the 
gift of interpreting dreams. This 
individual had been troubled with 
quite a fantastic dream throughout 
the night. So in the morning, he 
told of his exciting dream and 
asked President Young if he could 
give him an interpretation of it. 

The President listened to his 
statement. After the dreamer had 
finished, Brigham Young asked, 
"What did you have for your sup- 
per last evening, Brother Jones?" 

The party answered: "Well, I had 
quite a hearty dinner. L had some 
pork chops, some vegetables, and I 
ate half a mince pie for dessert." 

The President looked at him in a 
quizzical way, and said: "Brother 
Jones, you go home tonight and eat 
the other half of that mince pie and 
you'll get the interpretation." 

President George A. Smith was 
known for his dry wit and humor. 
One well-known witticism of Presi- 
dent Smith has been currently 
known for many years. In sermons 
on several important occasions in 

98 Era, November 1970 

telling the causes of the Latter-day 
Saints' coming to the Salt Lake 
Valley, he was wont to say: "We 
came here willingly because we 
were obliged to." 

Those who knew the late Presi- 
dent Jedediah M. Grant, especially 
those who knew him in his mission- 
ary work in the Southern States, re- 
count several anecdotes and bon 
mots which added to his prestige 
and his popularity. It was currently 
stated by the friends of Elder Grant 
that he was able to speak at least 
thirty minutes on any given text. So 
some of those who thought they 
could show this claim to be absurd, 
at one public meeting handed up to 
him on the rostrum a folded blank 
sheet of paper. This the elder un- 
folded meticulously and after paus- 
ing a few moments proceeded to 
deliver an address with the paper 
before him. This he did in a very 
apt way by saying that he was glad 
to receive the paper in that it 
showed the infirmity of a great 
many of his critics who insisted 
that they believe in a God without 
body, parts, or passions, "so this is 
very typical of their oracle." 

Perhaps it was the pioneer humor 
which lightened pioneer hardships 
—and we who follow the pioneers 
are glad for the leaven which they 
developed. O 


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of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, (322-7281). 

President J. Reuben 
Clark, Jr., former 
U.S. Ambassador to 
Mexico and member 
of the First 
Presidency from 

Volume 40, August 1937 

Who is youth? When is youth? 

who is youth? 

t *uy wt *ili«gi> IN unmiii c*r. »jw hi* yu* mi 

By President J. Reuben Clark, Jr.* 

• I should like to touch upon a very few of the many 
problems which confront you. I warn you they are 
the veriest commonplaces; the obvious; you have 
heard them often before; wisdom seemed to suggest 
it might be well for you to hear them again. They 
concern you as the youth of today. 

And speaking of youth, I wish to touch upon some 
of the ideas underlying the so-called youth movement 
of the day— not because I am justified in feeling that 
you here are infected with these ideas, for I must 
assume, to the contrary, that the spirit and teachings 
of this church will have given you the true view of 
life, its meaning, its high purpose, its destiny of ulti- 
mate divinity. But I shall do it merely by way of 
inoculating you against future contagion or infection. 
I shall do it with such soberness as an old man can 
muster, who has had some experience, some disillu- 
sionment, but who stands in a faith which strengthens 
day by day, with some vision of the beauties and 
glories of the gospel and of its eternal principles which, 
obeyed, will lead us on to salvation and exaltation. 

We again, all of us, even though we have passed by 
the deadline of seventy years, still remember in a 
sort of debilitated way how we felt when we went 
over the top for a piece of sheepskin. I say "went over 
the top," but some of us slipped through between the 
bars, and others just managed to crawl under the 
bottom one. But, old as we are, we remember some 
of the things we boasted and prophesied on that great, 

"Commencement address delivered at Brigham Young University, June 
9, 1937. 

long ago day of ours. We are a little shamefaced about 
them now, because even to our dimming eyes and 
jaded imaginations, the actual realities bear, to the 
things we boasted and prophesied, hardly the resem- 
blance of a thin, pale shadow of a defaming caricature. 
And in turn, the things we then had the courage to 
boast and to prophesy were but the faintest echoes of 
what we dreamed and visioned. 

On that faraway day, some of us strutted off the 
campus great warriors, others sort of smirked off as 
renowned diplomats, eclipsing Machiavelli at his best 
—or worst; others went forth jurists, statesmen, orators, 
painters, dramatists, officers of cabinet, presidents. 
Strength knotted our muscles, courage fired our blood, 
the will to do was king; hope leaped to the top of the 
topmost sky, ambition was a roaring lion, victory 
stood with arms outstretched, fame smiled and beck- 
oned. Oh, what a glorious day it was! What a dis- 
tinguished class we were! 

So we went forth in ecstasy, treading on air. Then 
we dreamed on, and dreamed to put the world in 
step, our step, the step of buoyant, vibrant youth. But 
youth passed on away from us, with the world, not 
ourselves, still out of step. 

In this time we first learned some rather obvious 
things, that to then we had not really known. Of course 
you know them already. We learned there were 
day and night, that there were twenty-four hours in a 
day and 365 days in a year; that we did not keep the 
same age, but year by year we grow older ( that is, half 
of us learned this ) ; that every year had four seasons, 

Era, November 1970 101 

falling in the same sequence; that the rain fell on the 
just and the unjust and that the sun shone on all alike; 
that when it was cold it was cold for everybody, and 
the same with the heat. We found that springtime 
was the time of planting, that fall was the time of 
harvesting; that if we did not plant in the spring, we 
could not harvest in the fall; that seasons of big crops 
might be followed, and in the long view were always 
followed, by small crops or none at all. We found that 
the earth and its people were governed by law and 
order and not by whim and caprice, nor by our desire. 
We learned that the mass of people cared little for 
what we said and less about what we thought. And 
Nature did not even know we had spoken or thought. 
These things we learned; a dream-destroying con- 

'No baser thing was ever 
concocted than the idea that 
the sex impulse is like 
the impulse of hunger and thirst 
and is to be like gratified..." 

sciousness began to come to us as it does to one who 
awakes from a sound sleep. Our eyes slowly opened; 
we blinked out upon a strange world, one of realities. 

Then along came full manhood and womanhood to 
live with us. We began to feel the press of gaining a 
livelihood, the responsibilities of a family; we met 
greed and avarice; we came to know deception and 
falsehood; cheating and dishonesty visited us; the 
bitter conflicts of life pushed themselves upon us; 
we had to do battle for the existence of ourselves and 
loved ones. We learned we could not cheat, cajole, 
deceive, or defraud nature, nor great natural laws, nor 
spiritual laws, either. We found that the law always 
exacts its penalty. 

This time was, for all of us, the time of disillusion- 
ment, and, for some of us, the time when hope died 
and discouragement came to dwell with us. But as 
troubles piled higher and higher, there came to those 
who lived righteously enduring faith, the hope of 
eternal life, a knowledge that God lives, an understand- 
ing of the truths of the gospel and of its saving prin- 
ciples, a love for God and for fellowmen, an abiding 

trust in the divine will and purpose. And so we passed 
to the middle-aged maturity. 

As knowledge grew and experience multiplied, we 
gathered wisdom, the most precious of God's gifts to 
the mind. Then this maturity, which had so gradually 
worked its way amongst us, it too passed on. Ripe- 
ness came, sometimes overripeness; and finally we 
are become as you see us today— your parents and your 
grandparents, and rightly or wrongly, we see ourselves 
in you. And because we passed through all these 
things I have spoken about, and our parents and grand- 
parents passed through them before us, and theirs 
before them, we, from this experience of ours that I 
have told you about, conclude that you will travel 
along by the very same way. 

Someone shakes his head. May I ask him to think 
of this: The experiences of humans through the ages 
prophesy what each generation will do with its time, 
its effort, and its life. Sometimes political, economic, 
or moral plagues afflict humanity and the prophecy 
seems to fail, just as diseases and physical plagues 
poured out upon men may seem to break for a time 
the mortality rules of the actuary's insurance tables 
which predict the length of human life with the 
accuracy of an algebraic formula. But time in each 
case rights all this, and the great constants of human 
life resume control. Nothing is more certain in all the 
universe than human nature, even though in its varia- 
tions among individuals it approaches infinity. Youth 
may not expect any change in this principle. 

If I were reading the thoughts of someone holding 
the ideas of the youth movement of today, I should 
see plainly written out on the illuminated leaves of 
his brain, a protest against what I am saying and a 
declaration that these times are different; that old 
rules are gone; that old laws have been changed; that 
a new world is here with new hopes, new ideas, new 
standards, new aspirations, new achievements, new 
adjustments; that the world belongs to youth, which 
is to come now into its long-postponed heritage. 

To us who have been working, struggling for a life- 
time to get a small portion of the earth, this idea of 
owning the earth has its allurements. As our early 
youth dreams were not pictured in quite such bold 
colors as yours, two questions come to our aged minds, 
disciplined by many disappointing years: Who is 
youth? Is it you who are here today, or those who 
were here a year ago or ten years ago, or those who 
will be here a year hence, or ten years hence? And the 
other question is: When is youth? Is it from 15 to 18, 
or 19 to 20, 21 to 24, or 25 to 30, or all the way from 
15 to 30; and if 15, why not 14, and then down to the 
cradle roll; and if 30, why not 31, and up to take in 


us of the classes of the '80s and the '90s of the last did not have. Our freedom, our guarantee of liberties, 

century? This latter idea looks so attractive to us that our constitutional government, these were not threat- 

we should like time to consider it. ened when we went forth. The world threatens them 

Of course, if you include anyone more than 21 or now, in every land and clime. Lawlessness, disorder, 

22, you will find that the older ones have already greed, avarice, swagger about us. Free government, the 

staked out a claim to some of the earth's crust and government of democracy, is challenged. If it is to be 

they may not willingly give it up. Furthermore, when saved, then the youth of yesterday, the youth who are 

you have reached that age, you will have staked out here, the youth who are coming, must save it. 

your claim and you may not be quite willing to give it Civil war again threatens, indeed may even now 

up to some youngster who is three or four years your have begun. This time it is class war, the most cruel, 

junior, just because he feels the acquisitive urge. You the bloodiest, the most inhuman of all, as the French 

will think he might go to work and earn his own, just and Russian revolutions and the civil war in Spain so 

as you did, and not take what you have worked for. clearly show. 

But even if youth (whoever and whenever it is) A few generations back, your ancestors gave their 

could accomplish these little turnovers to themselves lives to establish democracy on this continent: your 

of flocks and lands, houses and stocks, that belong to grandfathers fought and died to give the freedom of 

someone else, what about jobs and places and posi- that democracy to all men, irrespective of race or 

tions requiring experience and long cultivated skill? color; some of your fathers and brothers went to the 

A playwright for instance; the public may not con- front in World War I to maintain democracy, and 

sider each one who wishes to write a Shakespeare, some of them never returned. The price of human 

The public is peculiar that way, and has its own in- liberty has always been human suffering and human 

convenient ideas. So of painting and sculpture, and sacrifice. You may have to determine how much this 

music and law, and so through the list of professions freedom, which has come to you without price, is 

and of the management of any great business, indus- worth to you and to your children, what price •will 

trial or financial. And the same principles hold true you pay, whether, if necessary, you also will make the 

in the schools, in the Church, and in all activities of final sacrifice as did your forefathers. I pray the Lord 

life. People want in responsible places persons of to give you wisdom and courage. You will need both, 

experience in whom they have confidence and trust; We may not set up falsehood in any of its myriad 

but experience, confidence, and trust are plants of forms, and worship it; false lives, false living; false 

very slow growth. standards; false ideals; false doctrines; false principles; 

Some may say: We could learn. Surely youth can false companions; false prophets; false Christs; false 

learn. And that answer solves the problem. But learn- gods. This we must not do. 

ing takes time, and time breeds age, and age murders I must not get the profits and pleasures of my life 

youth. So if it be to youth that the earth belongs, from the goods and sorrows of others. What the world 

then youth loses by robbing itself through gaining age. needs today as badly as it needs anything is a knowl- 

But another one may say you are speaking of the edge between meum et tuum— between mine and 

grossly material things. True, there are things we yours. You may reasonably expect to enjoy your own 

have to eat, to drink, and to wear; these are rather rights and your own goods only if you will respect 

important, too. But we are thinking of the higher the rights and goods of others. There can be no 

things that make— I wonder if I dare say it, it is a peace and safety in the world, and no liberty, without 

fine phrase— the "more abundant life." Some youth are these. Indeed, with these gone, civilization will go. I 

saying we are planning new laws of economics, new pray you ponder this over in your minds; its truth will 

political tenets, new rules for finance, new principles come to you. Then guide your actions by it. 

of international conduct and relations. We will let you For a full century it has been our declared Church 

old men do all these other old-fashioned, necessary belief that "no government can exist in peace, except 

things. such laws are framed and held inviolate as will secure 

I am sure that study and reflection will show that to each individual the free exercise of conscience, the 

our economics, our politics, our finance, our princi- right and control of property, and the protection of 

pies of international conduct and relations are at least life." (D&C 134:2.) 

a part of the best of all that has gone before. Not all The movement of the world today against these is 

bad has yet been cut out; but over the centuries the not inspired from above, 

worst always dies; the best lives. And in this relation, let me urge you to consider 

But the times also bring youth other problems we this: It is one thing for an individual to fail to live 

Era, November 1970 103 

a standard, and quite another for him to change his tuted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the 

standard of life, even though "he does the same wrong Consent of the Governed. ..." O 
each time. Society has survived arson, pillage, robbery, 

and murder, however widespread they were, in fact, • Another notable item from President Clark's 
when they were under the ban of social order and of address to the youth of a modern day is here reprinted: 
the mass conscience; we shall not continue as a social "No baser thing, nor more destructive of all the 
organism when these crimes shall become the standard finer sentiments and sensibilities of life, was ever con- 
by which the mass is guided, no matter what the cocted than the idea that the sex impulse is like the 
avowed motive or pretended need for the standard, and impulse of hunger and thirst and is to be like gratified, 
no matter how circumscribed the occasion for doing This doctrine is born of the evil one; it leads to 
s the crimes is made. Because in the one case, the destruction. Sex is scarcely held in bounds when 
standard is righteous, with some man falling away banked about with all the restraint and control which 
therefrom; the other standard is unrighteous, with all a mature and disciplined will can build up, and when 
men paying their homage thereto. It is in this last that will is helped by attaching to sex the sanctity 
direction that the world now plunges. We must count which belongs to it as being placed in man that he 
upon you to save it, that human liberty and freedom of may help carry out the divine plan of giving bodies 
conscience shall be saved, that the Lord's work may to waiting spirits. But when sex is bidden to well up 
continue on earth so that men's souls may be saved. within the bodies of immature, undisciplined, unknow- 
How glorious the principles of our great Declaration ing, unwise youth, it becomes a boiling caldron that 
of Independence : consumes all the finer instincts and leaves its victims 

"We hold these Truths to be self-evident: that all physical and moral wrecks. 
Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their "You youth, facing the divine relationship of parent- 
Creator with certain inalienable Rights, that among hood, do not, I beseech you, drag yourselves and your 
these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness— children down to the ground among the beasts; rather 
That to secure these Rights, Governments are insti- raise yourselves to the skies among the angels." O 

To the Old Year 
By Mary Hale Woolsey 

December 1929 

Old Year, Old Year! They've opened wide 
the door. 
The time is drawing near for you to go. 
Their gay shouts rend the midnight frosty 
And bells ring out across the silver snow. 
The little, trembling New Year waits close 
The bells, the shouts, the clamor are for 
— For you, an unmourned passing in the 
None caring if your silent path be dim. 
A year ago, such wild acclaim was yours! 

Oh, do you grieve, this fickleness to see? 
Or do you smile, unhurt by any slight, 
Now that you stand so near eternity? 
And are you calm because you understand 

And value properly each joy and pain, 
Knowing that time will heal the bitter hurts 
And bring some share of happiness again? 
This wisdom did you bring to me, Old 
And I, who once looked forward fearfully, 
Can ivelcome in the new, with faith made 
Because you, Old Year, have been kind 
to me. 

104 Era, November 1970 

NOW AVAILABLE in response to many requests 
a re-issue of one of the great books of the Church: 

twelfth edition of 


by President Heber J. Grant 

A whole new generation of Church members will welcome the inspired forcefulness and under- 
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'Now I want to make all mistakes on the side "The Lord is no respecter of persons, and will 

of mercy. But once in a while I want to see give success to all who work for it. If I can 

justice get just a little bit of a chance among only impress upon the minds of the youth of 

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— Heber J. Grant — Heber J. Grant 

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important place in Mormon literature." 

— Richard L. Evans 

Price is only $4.95 postpaid 

Order from 

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And at book dealers everywhere. 

Arr Improvement Era publication 

Songs and Music of 
the Latter-day Saints 

By Evan Stephens 

Evan Stephens 
composer; director 
of the Tabernacle 
Choir for 24 years 

Swoifr ***& Mwtic of :("• Gutter day SaJMU 

Volume 17, June 1914 

• The songs and music of the Lat- 
ter-day Saints are in perfect accord 
with the spirit of the newly revealed 
gospel of Jesus Christ, as restored 
in modern times through the 
Prophet Joseph Smith. 

In contrast to that generally used 
by the churches of the day in 
which this church was set up anew 
upon the earth, they are as light 
to darkness, or brightness to gloom. 
Expressions of fear and sorrow, the 
terrible confessions of and lamen- 
tations over sin, the constant 
dwelling upon the sufferings of our 
crucified Savior, and the eternal 
tortures in store for sinners— these 
give place in the songs of the 
Latter-day Saints to expressions of 
hope, joy, and the sense of sins 
forgiven. More emphasis is placed 
upon the love and glorious con- 
quest of our Redeemer than upon 
his earthly sufferings; more on the 
final redemption of all erring hu- 
manity than upon a never-ending 
torment of souls. When the heart 
strings and the fount of tears are 
to be specially touched at all, it is 
with tenderness, sympathy, and joy 
rather than with terror and sorrow. 
This is equally true of the keynote 
of text and music, when the songs 
are really characteristic of the pre- 
vailing spirit of "Mormonism." 

One hymn in the Latter-day 

Saints hymnbook strikes the key 
true, and is characteristic of what 
should be the nature of our songs 
and music. The apostle Parley P. 
Pratt was the singer, and in my 
judgment he had but one peer in 
the Church as a writer of Latter- 
day Saints songs or hymns— the 
beloved Eliza R. Snow. Note its 
dignified, exalted brightness. 

"The morning breaks; the shadows 

Lo, Zion's standard is unfurled! 
The dawning of a brighter day 

Majestic rises on the world." 

-Hymns, No. 269 

Needless to say that any hap- 
hazard tune, fitting ever such a 
good, long-metered hymn, could 
never express that; every word and 
sentence needs its own peculiar 
fitting tone to tell it in music. 

Then hear the feminine, gentler 
harp of Eliza R. Snow, and mark 
the prevailing note of joy in it: 

"Though deepening trials throng 

your way, 
Press on, press on, ye Saints of 

Ere long the resurrection day 
Will spread its life and truth 


—Hymns, No. 285 

Others have in lesser numbers 
given us songs of perhaps equal 
merit. Note the kindly gentleness 
of that sermon in song written by 
President Charles W. Penrose: 

"School thy feelings, O my brother; 
Train thy warm impulsive soul; 
Do not its emotions smother, 
But let wisdom's voice control." 

—Hymns, No. 340 

The music composed for some of 
these, by Professor George Careless 
and others, fits so perfectly the 
character of the texts as to seem 
inseparable from them, and one 
cannot but think how much the 
words must have suffered in ex- 
pression before this complementary 
music was used in their singing. 

Let it be understood that we lay 
no claim to exclusive inspiration in 
the matters of songs or music; we 
not only believe that to a most 
eminent degree great poets and 
composers of all time and place 
have been inspired, but from their 
inspirational writings we freely 
cull the material most suitable and 
expressive of our religious thoughts 
and emotions and use them in their 
full spirit and meaning. The splen- 
did, devout songs of Watts, Wesley, 
and others, we both use and revere. 
They were great prophetic heralds 


of the coming dawn. We hold in 
similar reverence, love, and ad- 
miration the master works of the 
classic composers, particularly those 
of Protestant faith, writers of ora- 
torios from Handel to Mendels- 

The texts of the Catholic mass, 
being more ritualistic in character, 
make this magnificent music, writ- 
ten for this special form of worship, 
less adaptable and quite generally 
unsuited for our use. An "Ave 
Maria," for instance, is doctrinally 
opposed to our belief, as we do not 
believe that prayers should be ad- 
dressed to the Virgin Mary, and so 
as to many other points, even the 
general character of much of the 
music so expressive to the Catholic 
form of worship is unsuited to ours. 

But much of the texts of the great 
oratorios, especially of Handel and 
Mendelssohn, fit our modes of 
thought, expression, and even the 
experience, trials, and historic inci- 
dents of our church, so generally 
that one might think they were 
specially writen for our use. 

A note of home love runs through 
many of our most beloved songs, 
too, that is very characteristic of 
our feelings and a real part of our 
religion. As the ancient singers of 
Israel sang of their beloved Jeru- 
salem, Judea, and Canaan, so the 
Latter-day Saints love to sing of 
their mountain home, their Zion 
and its associations: 

"O ye mountains high, where the 

clear blue sky 
Arches over the vales of the free, 
Where the pure breezes blow and 

the clear streamlets flow, 
How I've longed to your bosom to 

O Zion! dear Zion! land of the free, 
Now my own mountain home, unto 

thee I have come, 
All my fond hopes are centered in 


—Hymns, No. 145 

These are expressions insepa- 
rable from the religious thoughts 
and feelings of the Latter-day 
Saints, just as are such heroic 
strains as the youth loves to sing: 

"True to the faith that our parents 

have cherished, 
True to the truth for which martyrs 

have perished, 
To God's command, Soul, heart, 

and hand, 
Faithful and true we will ever 


—Hymns, No. 157 

It isn't words or music to dream 
over; it is that pulsating with the 
life and action of today. If mystery 
is an element of sublimity, as I be- 
lieve it is claimed, and rightly in 
literature, our songs are wanting 
in that element, but they make up 
for it in practical clearness, devo- 
tion, and fervor. 

Yesterday was the dreamer's day. 
Today belongs to the active, wide- 
awake worker, and our religion is 
preeminently in harmony with to- 
day, and its unparalleled degree of 

Our songs and music, to a degree 
at least, are here again in harmony 
with our religion, as they should 
be; and, true to its active, optimis- 
tic character, our young people 

"We will work out our salvation; 
We will cleave unto the truth; 
We will watch and pray and labor 
With the fervent zeal of youth." 


While anthems and choruses are 
considerably selected from the 
standard works of masters, German, 
Italian, French, English, Scandi- 
navian, Welsh, Scottish, and Amer- 
ican, the texts of the same being 
generally from the holy scriptures, 
we have music of this class by our 
composers which, during the past 

twenty-five or thirty years, has 
come into constant use, and truth 
it is that it does not suffer in effec- 
tiveness by the side of classical 

And the same can be said of con- 
cert pieces, though the great operas 
of every nationality lend their most 
attractive numbers to make our 
best concerts musical events which 
visiting artists of highest rank speak 
about with enthusiasm. True it is 
that pretty, "taking" things, by 
popular writers, appeal to the 
masses, but it is equally true that in 
our larger towns, and especially in 
the great Tabernacle of Salt Lake 
City, programs of this light type 
would not be tolerated by either 
conductor or audience. Of course, 
we have, in the class of entertain- 
ment, houses devoted to the friv- 
olous, all the trashy music heard 
elsewhere in such places, and it is 
enjoyed by the audiences not yet 
risen above that standard in their 
taste, but such is in no sense a char- 
acteristic of the songs and music of 
the Latter-day Saints. 

The songs of the Sabbath schools, 
while light, bright, and unpreten- 
tious, musically are earnest, clean, 
and natural, in tone and expression, 
and effective for young voices. 
Perhaps we have here been a little 
too much impressed by the rhyth- 
mic swing of so-called "gospel 
hymns," out of which error I trust 
we will gradually emerge, as we 
realize more and more that youth, 
while naturally in harmony with a 
rhythmic flow that is expressive of 
the exuberance and life of youth, 
still can be touched and reached 
by a more ennobling quality of de- 
votional expression and earnestness, 
and of deeper things musically. 

We should labor to continue the 
advancement of this living up to 
the Psalmist's injunction, "Let all the 
people praise him," until the con- 
gregations sing in harmony like a 
choir. O 

Era, November 1970 107 

Milton Bennion 
formerly general 
superintendent of 
the Deseret Sunday 
School Union 



of Conduct 

By Milton Bennion 

Professor of Philosophy, University of Utah 

The selections in this number are 
restricted to the Apology, which 
occupies about forty pages in 
Jowett's translation of Plato's Dia- 
logues. The necessity of brevity 
makes it impossible to give selec- 
tions that properly represent the 
circumstances, and the arguments 
of Socrates. For this purpose it is 
necessary to read the Apology en- 
tire. Our aim has been to give 
those passages that illustrate best 
the moral principles of Socrates. 

Selections from the "Apology 
of Socrates"* 

Some one will say: And are you 
not ashamed, Socrates, of a course 
of life which is likely to bring you 
to an untimely end? To him I may 
fairly answer: There you are mis- 
taken: a man who is good for any- 
thing ought not to calculate the 
chance of living or dying; he ought 
only to consider whether in doing 
anything he is doing right or wrong 
—acting the part of a good man or 
of a bad. . . . For wherever a man s 
place is, whether the place which 
he has chosen, or that in which he 
is placed by a commander, there 
he ought to remain in the hour of 
danger; he should not think of 
death or of anything, but of dis- 
grace. And this, O men of Athens, 
is a true saying. 

"Dialogues of Plato, Jowett's translation, 
New York: C. Scribners Sons. 

• Men of Athens, I honor and love 
you; but I shall obey God rather 
than you, and while I have life and 
strength I shall never cease from 
the practice and teaching of philos- 
ophy, exhorting any one whom I 
meet after my manner, and con- 
vincing him saying: O my friend, 
why do you, who are a citizen of 
the great and mighty and wise city 
of Athens, care so much about lay- 
ing up the greatest amount of 
money and honor and reputation, 
and so little about wisdom and 
truth and the greatest improvement 
of the soul, which you never re- 
gard or heed at all. Are you not 
ashamed of this? And if the person 
with whom I am arguing, says, 
"Yes, but I do care," I do not depart 
or let him go at once; I interrogate 
and examine and cross-examine 
him; and if I think that he has no 
virtue, but only says that he has, 
I reproach him with undervaluing 
the greater, and overvaluing the 
less. And thus I should say to 
everyone whom I meet, young and 
old, citizen and alien, but especially 
to the citizens, inasmuch as they 
are my brethren. For this is the 
command to God, as I would have 
you know; and I believe that to this 
day no greater good has ever hap- 
pened in the state than my service 
to the God. For I do nothing but 
go about persuading you all, old 
and young alike, not to take thought 
of your persons or your properties, 

Volume 12, December 1908 

but first and chiefly to care about 
the greatest improvement of the 
soul. I tell you that virtue is not 
given by money, but that from 
virtue comes money and every 
other good of man, public as well 
as private. This is my teaching, 
and if this is the doctrine which 
corrupts the youth, my influence is 
ruinous indeed. . . . Whatever you 
do, know that I shall never alter 
my ways, not even if I have to die 
many times. 

Do not, then, require me to do 
what I consider dishonorable and 
impious and wrong, especially now, 
when I am being tried for impiety 
on the indictment of Meletus. For 
if, O men of Athens, by force of 
persuasion and entreaty, I could 
overpower your oaths, then I should 
be teaching you to believe that 
there are no gods, and convict my- 
self, in my own defense, of not 
believing in them. But that is not 
the case; for I do believe that there 
are gods, and in a far higher sense 
than that in which any of my ac- 
cusers believe in them. And to you 
and to God I commit my cause, to 
be determined by you as is best for 
you and for me. 

There are many reasons why I 
am not grieved, O men of Athens, 
at the vote of condemnation. I ex- 
pected this, and am only surprised 
that the votes are so nearly equal. 
• I had not the boldness, or impu- 
dence or inclination to address you 
as you would have liked me to 
address you, weeping and wailin'g 
and lamenting, and saying and do- 
ing many things which you have 
been accustomed to hear from 
others, and which, as I say, are 
unworthy of me. But I thought 
that I ought not to do ^anything 
common or mean in the hour of 
danger; nor do I now repent the 
manner of my defense, and I would 
rather die having spoken after my 
manner, than speak in your manner 
and live. 
• The difficulty, my friends, is not 


in avoiding death, but in avoiding 
unrighteousness; for that runs 
faster than death. . . . And now I 
depart hence, condemned by you to 
suffer the penalty of death, and 
they [the accusers of Socrates] to 
go their ways condemned by the 
truth to suffer the penalty of vil- 
lainy and wrong; and I must abide 
my reward— let them abide theirs. 

• If you think that by killing men 
you can avoid the accuser censur- 
ing your lives, you are mistaken; 
that is not a way of escape which 
is either possible or honorable; the 
easiest and the noblest way is not 
to be crushing others, but to be 
improving yourselves. 

• Wherefore, O judges, be of good 
cheer about death, and know this of 
a truth— that no evil can happen to 
a good man, either in life or after 
death. He and his are not neglected 
by the gods; nor has my own ap- 
proaching end happened by mere 
chance. But I see clearly that to 
die and be released was better for 
me; and therefore the oracle gave 
no sign. For which reason, also, I 
am not angry with my accusers or 
my condemners, they have done me 
no harm, although neither of them 
meant to do me any good; and for 
this I may gently blame them. 

Still I have a favor to ask of 
them. When my sons are grown up, 
I would ask you, O my friends, to 
punish them; and I would have you 
trouble them, as I have troubled 
you, if they seem to care for riches, 
or anything, more than about vir- 
tue; or if they pretend to be some- 
thing when they are nothing— then 
reprove them, as I have reproved 
you, for not caring about that for 
which they ought to care and think- 
ing that they are something when 
they are really nothing. And if you 
do this, I and my sons will have 
received justice at your hands. 

The hour of departure has ar- 
rived, and we go our ways— I to die 
and you to live— which is better, 
God only knows. O 

Era, November 1970 109 


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Dr. Sidney B. Sperry, 
professor of Old 
Testament languages 
and literature, 
Brigham Young 

Moroni the Lonely: 

The Story of the Title Page 

to the Book of Mormon 

Volume 47, February 1944 

• "fomni tm oLati 




By Dr. Sidney B. Sperry 

• A dramatic but tragic story lies 
behind the writing of the title 
page to the Book of Mormon. 

Before the last great battle en- 
sued between the Nephite and La- 
manite armies at Cumorah in the 
year a.d. 385, Mormon entrusted 
the plates containing his abridge- 
ment of the plates of Nephi to his 
son, Moroni. (Morm. 6:6.) Never- 
theless, after the battle— in which 
he was wounded— Mormon again 
obtained the plates and added some 
final words found in chapters six 
and seven respectively of the book 
called after his own name. All of 
the other records of his people he 
had previously hid up in the Hill 

It seems almost incredible, but 
the apparent fact remains that 
Moroni wandered alone over the 
face of this land for sixteen years 
before adding anything to the 
abridged record as commanded by 
his father. Let the plates tell their 
own story : 

"Behold I, Moroni, do finish the 
record of my father, Mormon. Be- 
hold, I have but few things to write, 
which things I have been com- 

manded by my father. 

"And now it came to pass that 
after the great and tremendous 
battle at Cumorah, behold, the 
Nephites who had escaped into the 
country southward were hunted by 
the Lamanites, until they were all 

"And my father also was killed 
by them, and I even remain alone 
to write the sad tale of the destruc- 
tion of my people. But behold, they 
are gone, and I fulfil the command- 
ment of my father. And whether 
they will slay me, I know not. 

"Therefore I will write and hide 
up the records in the earth; and 
whither I go it mattereth not. 

"Behold, my father hath made 
this record, and he hath written 
the intent thereof. And. behold, I 
would write it also if I had room 
upon the plates, but I have not; and 
ore I have none, for I am alone. My 
father hath been slain in battle, and 
all my kinsfolk, and I have not 
friends nor whither to go; and how 
long the Lord will suffer that I may 
live I know not. 

"Behold, four hundred years 
have passed away since the coming 

?■<**. :■ 

of our Lord and Savior." (Morm. 

What was Moroni doing those 
sixteen years alone? Where did he 
go? What adventures befell him in 
enemy country? These and a host 
of other questions we may ask our- 
selves, but all to no avail. The 
record is silent. But what would 
we not give for a day by day ac- 
count from the pen of Moroni 
himself! At any rate, it was prob- 
ably the memory of his father's 
command that led him to retrace 
his steps to Cumorah, there to write 
a "few things" and "hide up the 
records in the earth." And "few 
things" he did write at that time, 
for as we read along to verses 12 
and 13 of the eighth chapter of 
Mormon, he suddenly breaks off 
his account by recording: 

". . . Behold, I am Moroni; and 
were it possible, I would make all 
things known unto you. 

"Behold, I make an end of speak- 
ing concerning this people. I am 
the son of Mormon, and my father 
was a descendant of Nephi." 

In the opinion of the writer this 
statement was Moroni's original 


farewell. A careful study of what 
precedes and what follows these 
words must lead one to realize the 
possibility of this being so. Verse 
13 is a logical point for a chapter 
division. It is quite likely that at 
this point Moroni wrote the first 
paragraph (as we now have it) of 
the Book of Mormon title page. 

"Wherefore, it is an abridgment 
of the record of the people of 
Nephi, and also of the Lamanites— 
Written to the Lamanites, who are 
a remnant of the house of Israel; 
and also to Jew and Gentile— Writ- 
ten by way of commandment, and 
also by the spirit of prophecy and 
of revelation— Written and sealed 
up, and hid up unto the Lord, that 
they might not be destroyed— To 
come forth by the gift and power 
of God unto the interpretation 
thereof— Sealed by the hand of 
Moroni, and hid up unto the Lord, 
to come forth in due time by way 
of the Gentile— The interpretation 
thereof by the gift of God." 

He did not write the second 
paragraph of the title page at this 
time for the very good and suffi- 
cient reason that he had not yet 
abridged the book of Ether, which 
is mentioned therein. 

Having finished the first para- 
graph of the title page, it is not 
unreasonable to presume that 
Moroni hid up the plates entrusted 
to him in the stone box built for 
the purpose in the side of the Hill 
Cumorah. He then departed, feel- 
ing that his work was finished, his 
father's commands having been 
carried out. How long Moroni 
wandered over the face of the 
land— whether to be reckoned in 
years, months, or days— we do not 
know. But sometime between the 
years a.d. 401 and a.d. 421 he again 
saw fit to come back to the Hill 
Cumorah. Taking up the sacred 
record from its resting place in the 
stone box he begins to write at the 
point he had formerly left off. 

"And I am the same who hideth 
up this record unto the Lord. . . ." 

Thus begins Mormon 8:14. It is 
quite natural for Moroni to identify 
himself again, though we already 
know (verse 4) that he was going 
to hide up the record. He writes 
steadily and in a somewhat differ- 
ent mood from what we have 
already observed in Mormon 8:1- 
13. Thus he continues until he 
finishes the book that is now 
known to us as Mormon. He ends 
it prayerfully and formally: 

"And may God the Father re- 
member the covenant which he 
hath made with the house of Israel; 
and may he bless them forever, 
through faith on the name of Jesus 
Christ. Amen." (Morm. 9:37.) 

There may be those who will 
prefer to believe that this is the 
point at which Moroni wrote the 
first paragraph of the title page 
rather than at Mormon 8:13 as I 
have advocated. But no matter- 
Moroni finds that he still has space 
left on the plates upon which he 
may write something of value. He 
ponders the matter and finally de- 
cides on making an abridgment of 
the book of Ether for the benefit 
of future generations. 

"And I take mine account from 
the twenty and four plates which 
were found by the people of Limhi, 
which is called the Book of Ether." 
(Eth. 1:2.) 

If we take this statement literally, 
that is, if Moroni determined to 
get at the gold originals rather than 
use Mosiah's translation (Mosiah 
28:17) of them (a copy of which 
could have been in his possession ) , 
it would be necessary for him to 
tunnel into the library of records 
hidden in the Hill Cumorah by his 
father. How Moroni accomplished 
this without being detected by 
the Lamanites must, of course, be 
left to our imaginations. 

Having finished his task of 
abridgment, Moroni then proceeded 

to add another paragraph to his 
title page. This was a logical neces- 
sity. Thus we read: 

"An abridgment taken from the 
Book of Ether also, which is a rec- 
ord of the people of Jared, who 
were scattered at the time the Lord 
confounded the language of the 
people, when they were building 
a tower to get to heaven— Which is 
to show unto the remnant of the 
House of Israel what great things 
the Lord hath done for their fathers 
and that they may know the cove- 
nants of the Lord, that they are not 
cast off forever— And also to the 
convincing of the Jew and Gentile 
that JESUS is the CHRIST, the 
ETERNAL GOD, manifesting him- 
self unto all nations— And now, if 
there are faults they are the mis- 
takes of men; wherefore condemn 
not the things of God, that ye may 
be found spotless at the judgment- 
seat of Christ." 

Having done this, Moroni makes 
a statement that is throbbing with 
human interest and pathos: 

"Now I, Moroni, after having 
made an end of abridging the ac- 
count of the people of Jared, I had 
supposed not to have written more, 
but I have not as yet perished; and 
I make not myself known to the 
Lamanites lest they should destroy 
me." (Moro. 1:1.) 

There is a note of grim humor 
in the statement, "I have not as yet 
perished." So he continued to write, 
we may presume, at various times 
and occasions as he felt inspired to 
return to the hill. It is passing 
strange that he did not add a third 
paragraph to the title page of the 
Book of Mormon after finishing the 
final statements found in chapter 
ten of Moroni. By the time that 
chapter was written Moroni had 
wandered alone some thirty-six 
years (from a.d. 385 to a.d. 421). 
And therein lies an epic for some 
clever novelist or dramatist to 
exploit. O 

Era, November 1970 111 

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2427 Blaine Avenue • Salt Lake City, Utah 84108 

The Church 
Moves On 

August 1970 

EsJ West Virginia Stake, the 522nd now 
functioning, was organized by Elder 
Ezra Taft Benson of the Council of the 
Twelve. Sustained were President David 
L. Atkinson and counselors Wayne H. 
Martin and Clarence R. Sheffield. 


The annual all-Church softball 
tournament began this morning, fea- 
turing 96 of the estimated 5,000 
Church teams that have participated in 
softball tournaments through the 
Church. A devotional for the more than 
1,200 tournament players was held in 
the Salt Lake Tabernacle last evening. 


In the softball tournaments com- 
pleted today, Bountiful (Utah) 30th 
Ward won the all-Church senior fast 
pitch tournament by defeating Monu- 
ment Park West 5th; Whittier 7th de- 
feated another California team, Chula 
Vista, for the junior fast pitch title. 
Marietta (Georgia) won over Santa Fe 
Springs (California) for the senior slow 
pitch championship, and Merced 2nd 
defeated another California team, El 
Corrito, for the junior slow pitch title. 

Doyle L. Green has been named 
managing editor and M. Dallas Burnett 
assistant managing editor of the new 
adult magazine of the Church, it was 
announced. The roster of key appoint- 
ments of the new magazines is now 

It was announced that Paul S. Rose 
is the new secretary of the stake mis- 
sions of the Church. 

Promised Valley completed its season 
this evening in the outdoor theater 

across from Temple Square. It was 
estimated that more than 118,000 saw 
the 1970 production, which had 49 
performances. In the July 1970 issue 
of Better Homes and Gardens, the musi- 
cal pageant was named as one of the 
nation's 12 outstanding tourist attrac- 

tid New stake presidencies: President 
Reed E. Price and counselors John H. 
Tanner and John R. Peterson, Phoenix 
(Arizona) North Stake; President Robert 
J. Mawle and counselors Stanley H. 
Woods and Frank T. Tennant, Birming- 
ham (England) Stake. 

The appointment of Terrence L. 
Hansen as head of the missionary lan- 
guage training mission on the Brigham 
Young University campus was an- 

September 1970 

Sao Paulo (Brazil) South Stake, the 
523rd now functioning, was organized 
from portions of Sao Paulo and Sao 
Paulo East stakes by Elder Gordon B. 
Hinckley of the Council of the Twelve 
and Elder David B. Haight, Assistant to 
the Twelve. President Saul M. de 
Oliveira and counselors Ferrer da Costa 
and Floriano V. Franco were sustained. 

Niagara (Canada) Stake, the 524th, 
was organized from portions of the 
Toronto Stake by Elder Thomas S. Mon- 
son of the Council of the Twelve. Presi- 
dent Elden C. Olsen and counselors 
Cecil H. Taylor and James M. Rich were 

Des Moines (Iowa) Stake, the 525th, 
was organized from portions of the 
Central Iowa District of the Kansas- 
Missouri Mission and the Cedar Rapids 
Stake by President Spencer W. Kimball 
of the Council of the Twelve. President 
Donald G. Woolley and counselors 
Derwin C. Merrill and Alan P. Kleinman 
were sustained. 

New stake presidency: President 
Jack F. Joyner and counselors Richard 
P. Winder and Theodore H. Strickland, 
Atlanta (Georgia) Stake. 

Era, November 1970 113 



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! a airrer il the hit 

I *\i 

The Book of Mormon 
as a Mirror of the East 

Volume 51, April 1948 

By Dr. Hugh Nibley 

Dr. Hugh Nibley, 
professor of history 
and religion, 
Brigham Young 

• "The average man," wrote the 
great A. E. Housman, "believes that 
the text of ancient authors is gen- 
erally sound, not because he has 
acquainted himself with the ele- 
ments of the problem, but because 
he would feel uncomfortable if he 
did not believe it." The Book of 
Mormon has enjoyed no such popu- 
lar support. Indeed, the "average 
man" would like nothing better than 
to see it thoroughly exposed once 
and for all; it has made him feel 
uncomfortable for over a century. 
What is holding up the show? 

For one thing, the Book of Mor- 
mon is immune to attack from the 
West. No matter how much archae- 
ological evidence may pile up one 
way or the other, the fact remains 
that the Book of Mormon never 
claims to be telling the story of 
all the people who ever lived in the 
western hemisphere. Even within 
its own limited compass it is, as 
Professor Sidney B. Sperry has 
shown, for the greater part "a 
minority report" and does not deal 
with various branches of several 
groups that came from the Old 
World. Thus, where research in 

America may conceivably bring 
forth a wealth of evidence to sup- 
port the Book of Mormon, no find- 
ings can be taken as unequivocal 
evidence against it. 

It is a far different story when 
our book presumes to invade the 
soil of the East, giving specific 
names, places, and dates. Here any 
imposter of the 1820s would be on 
dangerous ground indeed. No bet- 
ter handle could be asked for un- 
sparing and rigorous criticism than 
the outright commitments of the 
Book of Mormon on matters Egyp- 
tian. By harping on the peculiar 
neo-Egyptian language of the 
Nephites, by furnishing a list of 
their personal and place names, by 
pretending to describe political con- 
flicts originating in the Old World, 
the author of the Book of Mormon 
plays right into the hands of mod- 
ern critics. For the Near East of 
600 B.C. is no longer the twilight 
zone of gorgeous mysteries it was 
in the days of Joseph Smith. Any 
fabrication by him or even his most 
learned contemporary would neces- 
sarily appear today as a mass of 
blunders in which some accidental 

resemblance to truth might be de- 
tected once, but hardly twice. 

Does the author or translator of 
the book display any knowledge 
concerning that part of the world in 
which it claims to have had its 
origin? That is the question. By 
way of answer— a mere opening 
wedge as it were— we shall briefly 
discuss a few short years in Book 
of Mormon history, that stormy 
time during which the system of 
rule by judges passed through some 
of those severe tests which finally 
proved its undoing. We shall 
match the story step by step with a 
number of Old World parallels, and 
after a few general observations let 
the reader decide for himself just 
what significance should be at- 
tributed to these parallels. 

Book of Mormon 

Acting on the recommendation of 
King Mosiah, who was anxious to 
avoid a throne controversy, the 
people substituted for the kingship 
a system of rule by priestly judges : 

". . . we will appoint wise men 
to be judges, that will judge this 
people according to the cqmmand- 

Era, November 1970 115 




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ments of God." (Mosiah 29:11.) 

We are not told where Mosiah 
got the idea, but the eagerness and 
ease with which the people adopted 
the system imply that they were 
familiar with it. (See Mosiah 29:37- 
41.) This is definitely indicated by 
the account of one Korihor, who 
was able to gain a great following 
in the land by charging "the high 
priest, and also the chief judge 
over the land" with reviving "ordi- 
nances and performances which 
are laid down by ancient priests, to 
usurp power and authority" over 
the country. (Al. 30:21-24.) That 
there was a real danger of reviving 
an ancient priest-rule is apparent 
from the fact that the new system 
had no sooner been established 
than a certain Nehor, in the first 
case to be tried by the new chief 
judge, is charged with being "first 
to introduce priestcraft among this 
people." The chief judge on this 
occasion observes that such priest- 
craft if allowed by the people 
"would prove their entire destruc- 
tion." (Al. 1:12.) So we are told 
that priestcraft had not been prac- 
ticed in the New World, but that a 
tradition of priestcraft was vividly 
remembered; its origin must there- 
fore be sought in the Old World, 
if we would believe the Book of 

The Old World 

From the eleventh dynasty on, 
the history of Egypt is largely con- 
cerned with the efforts of the priests 
of Amon, with the chief priest of 
Amon at their head, to gain control 
of the country. About 1085 B.C. 
the chief priest of Amon actually 
seized the throne of the south, and 
from that time on "the high priest 
of Amon . . . could and constantly 
did reduce the king to a position of 
subservience." 1 The name of the 
great priest who crowned himself 
in Thebes was Herihor or Kherihor. 2 
The cornerstone of the priestly rule 
was a new system of popular law 

116 Era, November 1970 

courts, in which the priests of 
Amon were the judges, and which 
at first competed with and then 
supplanted the regular courts 
everywhere. 3 The separatist ten- 
dency, which remains characteristic 
of the priestly history, may have 
been foreshadowed in the uniting 
of all the south countries as a single 
administrative unit under Nehi, the 
great governor of the eighteenth 
dynasty, as well as in the appear- 
ance, beginning with Count Nehri, 
of a separate ruling family at 
Thebes, under the patronage of 
Amon.* Nehri's successor, by tak- 
ing the name Sam Taioi, "uniter of 
the lands," serves notice of a new 
dynasty. 5 

Whether or not Nehi and Nehri 
are in any way related to the name 
Nephi (there are other Egyptian 
names that come nearer) 6 remains 
to be investigated. But no philolo- 
gist will refuse to acknowledge the 
possible identity of the Book of 
Mormon Korihor with the Egyptian 
Kherihor, and none may deny, 
philologist or not, a close resem- 
blance between Sam and Sam (the 
brother of Nephi). 

Book of Mormon 

The so-called "people of Am- 
nion," a community noted for its 
piety, took Korihor before their 

leader, Ammon, "who was high 
priest over that people." Thence 
he was "carried before the high 
priest, and also the chief judge of 
the land." This higher court in 
turn "sent him to the land of Zara- 
hemla ... to Alma, the chief judge, 
who was governor over all the 
land," as well as head of the 
church. (Al. 30:19-20; 29ff.) 

The Old World 

The chief governor of Egypt was 
"the high priest of Amon" (or Am- 
mon), 7 his title being in Egyptian 
neter hem tep— "chief servant 
(Hem) of the God." 8 Hem is an 
element in Egyptian proper names 9 


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and means the same as the ex- 
tremely common Abdi element in 
western Asiatic names of the time 
(cf. the modern Arabic Afrrfullah, 
"servant of God"). It is most in- 
teresting that the brother of Ammon 
in the Book of Mormon actually 
bears the name of Hem. (Mosiah 
7:6.) As for Amon (or Ammon), it 
is the commonest proper name in 
the Book of Mormon, and also the 
commonest and most revered name 
in the Egyptian Empire. 10 Here it 
is time to point out that the Egyp- 
tian Empire at all times during the 
later period (after 930 b.c. ) pre- 
tends to embrace Palestine and 
regard Jerusalem as a dependent." 
The reverence shown the name of 
Amon in no way indicates the 
slightest concession to paganism on 
the part of the Jews, since Amon is 
no less than the Egyptian version 
of their own universal, one, creator- 
God, the Great Spirit, who is never 
conceived to be in animal form nor 
represented by any image. 12 He 
first appears about 2140 b.c. in 
southern Egypt, at Thebes, where 
he seems to have been an impor- 
tation from western Asia. 13 Can 
he be the God of Abraham? It is 
significant that the name first rises 
to prominence in the years follow- 
ing the time of Abraham's sojourn 
in Egypt, and at a place where the 
most famous Jewish colony in 
Egypt was settled. This colony at 
Elephantine may have been very 
ancient, since according to Egyp- 
tian records it had been the cus- 
tom of the people of Palestine and 
Syria from time immemorial to seek 
refuge in Egypt and settle in such 
communities. It is conceded, at any 
rate, that the colony is a good deal 
older than the Hebrew records 
which came from it in the fifth cen- 
tury B.C.; possibly it dates from 
the middle of the seventh century. 14 
This would make it old in the time 
of Lehi and furnish a possible ex- 
planation for the strange tendency 
of Book of Mormon names to be 


concentrated in Upper Egypt. 

A reflection of the Egyptian pic- 
ture may be detected in the coast 
cities of Palestine, regularly under 
Egyptian influence, where govern- 
ment was also by priests and judges, 
who occasionally usurped the office 
of king. This happened both at 
Sidon and Tyre; in the latter city 
two priestly usurpers bore the name 
of Maitena or Mattena—a. name 
which has a number of variants and 
strongly suggests the Book of Mor- 
mon Mathoni. 1 "' 

Book of Mormon 

The experiment with government 
by priestly judges collapsed, largely 
due to a rivalry for the chief judge- 
ship among three candidates, all 
sons of the great chief judge, 
Pahoran. Their names are Pahoran, 
Paanchi and Pacumeni. (Hel. l:lff.) 

The Old World 

Such family rivalry for the office 
of high priest is characteristic of 
the Egyptian system, in which the 
office seems to have been heredi- 
tary not by law but by usage. 16 

The name of Pahoran reflects the 
eastern Pahura, which is "re- 
formed" Egyptian, i.e., a true Egyp- 
tian title, but altered in such a wav 
as to adapt it to the Hebrew-Ca- 
naanite speech. 17 Pahuia (also writ- 
ten Puhuru) was in Amarna times 
an Egyptian governor (rabu) of 
Syria. 18 The same man, or another 
man with the same name, was 
placed by Pharaoh as governor of 
the Ube district, with his head- 
quarters at Kumedi™ (cf. the ele- 
ment Rumen in the Book of Mor- 
mon place names). 20 

Paanchi is simply the well-known 
Egyptian Paiankh (also rendered 
Pianchi, Paankh, etc.). 21 The first 
important man to bear the name 
was none other than the son of the 
above-mentioned Kherihor. He did 
not succeed his father on the throne, 
being content with the all-powerful 
office of chief high priest of Amon, 

but his son, Panezem, did become 
king. 22 In the middle of the eighth 
century another Pianhki, a king of 
Nubia, conquered virtually all of 
Egypt, and claimed for himself the 
office of high priest of Anion at 
Thebes as well as the title of Pha- 
raoh. 23 His successor, when the As- 
syrians invaded Egypt, in the days 
of Lehi, fled to a fortified city, as 
yet unlocated, which bore the name 
of Kipkip or Kibkib, 2 * a name that 
strongly suggests the Book of Mor- 
mon city-name Gidgiddoni ( cf . also 
Gimgim-no). (3 Ne. 9:8.) 

Pacumeni, the name of the third 
son, resembles that borne by some 
of the last priest governors of 
Egypt, whose names are rendered 
Pa-menech, Pa-mnkh, Pamenches, 
etc. 25 The Greeks (who often fur- 
nish the key to the correct reading 
of Egyptian names) put the gut- 
tural before the nasal, as in the 
Book of Mormon form, Pachomios 20 
The most famous man of the name 
commanded all the forces of the 
south, and was also high priest of 
Horus. At least one other governor- 
general of Egypt bore the name. 27 
A striking coincidence is the pre- 
dominance among both Egyptian 
and Nephite judge names of the 
prefix Pa-. In late Egyptian this is 
extremely common, and has simply 
the force of the definite article. For 
the Egyptian chief priests Panezem, 
Pakebis, and Panas 2S we have no 
Book of Mormon parallel, but from 
the Nephite list we must not omit 
the name of Pachus, since, though 
I have not found it in the limited 
documents at my disposal, it is per- 
fectly good Egyptian (meaning "he 
— Amon— is praised"), both ele- 
ments occurring frequently in Egyp- 
tian proper names. 29 Another Book 
of Mormon judge, Cezoram, has a 
name that suggests that of an 
Egyptian governor of a Syrian city: 
Chi-zi-ri (Knudtzon, Am. Taj. 41, 
2). It should be noted that the 
above Panezem, upon becoming 
king, took the name of Meriamon, 

Era, November 1970 119 

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which has a Book of Mormon ring, 
even if we don't read it Moriamon— 
a perfectly possible variant. 

Sidon was the official port 
through which the Jews traded with 
Egypt. Since Lehi and his people 
were in the mercantile business, it 
is not surprising that Sidon is the 
only Palestinian city besides Jeru- 
salem whose name figures prom- 
inently in Book of Mormon 
geography. Moreover, since Sidon 
was the common meeting ground 
between Hebrew and Egyptian, 
and since names in both languages 
occur in the Book of Mormon, one 
would expect the name of this most 
popular place to appear in its Egyp- 
tian as well as in its Hebrew form. 
The Egyptian form (Albright's list 
XXII, B, 4) is Dji-dw-na, which 
is remarkably close to the Book of 
Mormon personal name Giddonah. 
For easier comparison we get the 
following tentative lists by placing 
the Old World (OW) words with 
the New World (NW) or Book 
of Mormon (BM) words: 

Amon (Ammon), (OW), the 
commonest name in the latter Em- 
pire; originally from south Egypt 

Ammon, (BM), the commonest 
name in the Book of Mormon 

Amanathabi, (OW), chief of a 
Canaanite city under Egyptian 
domination. The name is "re- 
formed" Egyptian. 

Aminadab, (BM), Nephite mis- 
sionary in the time of judges 

Chiziri, (OW), Egyptian gover- 
nor of a Syrian city 

Cezoram, (BM), Nephite chief 

Dji-du-na, ( OW ) , Egyptian name 
for Sidon 

Giddonah, (BM), i. high priest 
who judged Korihor 
ii. father of Amulek 
Hem, (OW), "servant," specifi- 
cally, of Amon 
Hem, (BM), brother of Ammon 
Hes, Khesi, (OW), "praised," an 
Egyptian proper name 
Pa-chus, (BM), leader of the 

120 Era, November 1970 

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faction that drove Pahoran from 
the judgment seat 

Kherihor, (also written Khurhor, 
etc.) (OW), great high priest of 
Amon, who made himself king in 
South Egypt 

Korihor, (BM), a political agita- 
tor who charged the judges with 
priestcraft, and was seized by the 
people of Amnion 

Kipkip, Kibkib, (OW), a city in 
the extreme south of Egypt 

Gimgim-no, (BM), a Nephite 

Manti, (OW), Semitic form of 
an Egyptian proper name, e.g., 
Manti-mankhi, a prince in Upper 
Egypt about 650 b.c. Derived 
from Egyptian Mntio— Month of 

Manti, (BM), the name of a 
Nephite soldier, a land, a city, and 
a hill 

Nehi (OW), great administrator 
who "united all the south under his 

Nehri, (OW), Count of Thebes 
who claimed independent dominion 
in the south of Egypt 

Nephi, (BM), founder of the 
Nephite nation 

Pahura, (OW), ambassador of 
Egypt in Palestine 

Pahoran, (BM), i. great chief 

ii. son of same 

Paanchi, (OW), i. son of Keri- 
hor, the chief high priest 

ii. ruler of the south who con- 
quered all of Egypt; he was high 
priest of Amon at Thebes 

Paanchi, (BM), son of Pahoran, 
Sr., and pretender to the chief 

Pamenches ( Gk. Pachomios ) , ( O 
W), commander of the south and 
high priest of Horus 

Pacumeni, ( BM ) , son of Pahoran, 
Sr., and rival pretender to the 
chief judgeship 

Maitena, Mattenos, etc., (OW), 
two judges of Tyre, who at dif- 
ferent times made themselves king, 


possibly under the Egyptian aus- 

Mathoni, (BM), a Nephite dis- 

Sam Tawi, (OW), successor to 
Nehri, who took the name Sam 
( uniter ) upon becoming king in the 

Sam, ( BM ), brother of Nephi 

Sidon, (OW), the port through 
which all Jewish trade with Egypt 
had to pass 

Sidon, (BM), the only city name 
of the Holy Land, beside Jerusalem, 
which is a prominent Book of Mor- 
mon name 

It requires no great effort of the 
imagination to detect a sort of 
parallelism between the two short 
listings. But aren't we using un- 
justified violence when we simply 
take the names at random and place 
them side by side? That is just 
what is most remarkable; we did 
pick names at random, and we had 
the whole Near East to draw on, 
with Egyptian names by no means 
predominating numerically in the 
lists before us. Yet the only Old 
World names that match those in 
our Book of Mormon episode all 
come from Egypt, nay, from one 
particular section of Egypt, in the 
far south, where from an indefinite 
date, but at least as early as the 
mid-seventh century, a Jewish col- 
ony flourished. What is more, all 
these names belong to the later 
dynasties, after the decline. 

The Book of Mormon tells us 
that Lehi was a rich merchant, who, 
though he "dwelt in Jerusalem all 
his days," enjoyed an Egyptian 
education and culture, which he en- 
deavored to transmit to his children. 
The book continually refers to the 
double culture of the people of 
Lehi: Hebrew to the core, but 
proud of their Egyptian heritage. 
"Egyptian civilization was one to 
be admired and aped," writes H. B. 
Hall, speaking of Lehi's own land 
and time. The only non-Hebraic 

names to enjoy prominence among 
the Nephites should, by the Book 
of Mormon's own account, be 
Egyptian, and such is found to be 
the case. 

It will be noted that the names 
compared are never exactly alike, 
except in the case of the mono- 
syllables Sam and Hem. This, 
strangely enough, is strong con- 
firmation of their common origin, 
since names are bound to undergo 
some change with time and dis- 
tance, whereas if the resemblance 
were perfect we should be forced 
to attribute it, however fantastic it 
might seem, to mere coincidence. 
There must be differences; and 
what is more, those differences 
should not be haphazard but dis- 
play definite tendencies. This 
brings us to a most impressive as- 
pect of Book of Mormon names. 

Let us take for example the case 
of Ammon. Being so very popular 
a name, one would expect it to oc- 
cur in compounds as well as alone, 
and sure enough, it is the common- 
est element in compound names, in 
the West as in Egypt. But in com- 
pound names Amon or Amun 
changes form following a general 
rule. Gardiner, in his Egyptian 
Grammar (page 431), states: 

"A very important class of per- 
sonal names is that containing 
names known as theophorous, i.e., 
compound names in which one ele- 
ment is the name of a deity. Now 
in Graeco-Roman transcriptions it 
is the rule that when such a divine 
name is stated at the beginning of 
a compound [the italics are Gardi- 
ner's] it is less heavily vocalized 
than when it stands independently 
or at the end of a compound." 

The author then goes on to show 
that in such cases Amon or Amun 
regularly becomes Amen, while in 
some cases the vowel may disap- 
pear entirely. One need only con- 
sider the Book of Mormon Amini- 
dab, Aminadi, Amnihu, Amnor, etc., 

Era, November 1970 123 


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to see how neatly the rule applies 
in the West. In the name Helaman, 
on the other hand, the strong vocal- 
ization remains, since the "divine 
name" is not stated at the begin- 
ning" of the compound. Since the 
Semitic "1" must always be rendered 
as "r" in Egyptian (which has no 
T'), Helaman would, in "un- 
refbrmed" Egyptian, necessarily ap- 
pear as the typically Egyptian Her- 

To return to our question: What 
did Joseph Smith, translator of the 
Book of Mormon, know about the 
Old World? So much seems cer- 
tain, that he knew: 

( 1 ) A number of typically Egyp- 
tian names, queer-sounding words 
in no way resembling Hebrew or 
any other language known to the 
world of Joseph Smith's time. 

(2) He knew the sort of plot 
and setting in which those names 
would figure in the Old World and 
seems quite at home on the Egyp- 
tian scene. 

( 3 ) He gives a clear and correct 
picture of cultural relationships be- 
tween Egypt and Israel, with due 
emphasis on its essentially commer- 
cial nature, in the remarkably 
convincing picture of Lehi— a typi- 
cal merchant prince of the seventh 
century b.c. The picture of life 
in the ancient east which the Book 
of Mormon allows us to reconstruct 
is the more wonderful in the light 
of those fantastic conceptions of 
the gorgeous East which bedizened 
the heads of even the best scholars 
at the time the book came forth. 

The whole field of Book of Mor- 
mon names still awaits the careful 
study it deserves— the purpose of 
the present sketch being merely to 
indicate that such a study will prove 
anything but a blind alley. As a 
parting example of the validity of 
this claim, we cite a principle stated 
by Albright (Vol. 10, p. 12): "The 
loss of the ending on is quite com- 
mon in Palestinian place-names." 

In Egyptian or "reformed" Egyp- 
tian such an ending would be 
preserved, and so we have Book of 
Mormon place-names Emron, Hesh- 
lon, Jashon, Moron, Morianton, etc. 
It is no small feat, as was dem- 
onstrated in the article "Original 
Words of the Book of Mormon," 30 
simply to have picked a lot of 
strange and original names out of 
the air. But what shall we say of 
the man who was able to pick the 
right ones? O 


i H. R. Hall, Cambridge Ancient History, 
Vol. 3, p. 268. 

2 A Moret, Histoire de VOrient (Paris: Presses 
Universitaires, 1941), Vol. 2, p. 591, renders 
the name Herihor, the "h" being hard "kh." 
The vowels are largely guesswork: thus E. A. 
W. Budge, The Mummy (Cambridge, 1925), 
p. 103: Heriher; Hurhor (Aeg. Ztschr, Vol. 20, 
1882, Suppl. pi. ii); Her-Heru. (E. Budge, The 
Nile, 1912, p. 50); Her-Hor, A Wiedemann, 
"Beitrage zur aegyptischen Geschichte," Aeg. 
Ztschr., Vol. 23 (1885), p. 83; Breasted, like 
H, R. Hall, prefers Hrihor. In this study we 
have chosen to follow Moret, whose recent 
and thorough study largely supersedes the 

3 Moret, op. cit., Vol. 2, p. 569. 

4 H. E. Winlock, "The Eleventh Egyptian 
Dynasty," Journal of Near Eastern Studies 
(University of Chicago Press), Vol. 2 (1943), 
p. 256. 

5 Winlock, p. 266. 

n E. g., the early Neheb (or Nehep), xiii 
Dyn. Nehsi, and great numbers of names be- 
ginning with the element Nebor Nep-. It is just 
possible, since the name is written Nephi in- 
stead of Nefi in the Book of Mormon, that the 
"ph" represents, as in the Greek of the same 
period, an unstable "h"— "p-h." In that case 
Book of Mormon Nehor would be equivalent to 
the Hebrew version of Amenophis IV, who in 
Palestine is called Naphuria, and Lehi would 
stand for Lephi, an Egyptian equivalent of 
Hebrew Levi. This, however, is pure specu- 

7 A. H. Gardiner, Egyptian Grammar ( Oxford, 
1927), p. 429. 

s Moret, op. cit., p. 518; Hall, in Cambridge 
Ancient History, Vol. 3, p. 268 : Hem-nuter-tepi. 

9 E.g., the famous priest Hem-isi of Dynasty 
xxiii, Hall, op. cit., p. 266. 

10 Though the name of Nephi occurs oftener, 
Amnion in various forms seems to turn up as 
an element in proper name compounds far 
oftener than any other in the Book of Mormon. 
This is entirely in keeping with the behavior of 
the name of Amon in the East. Compare the 
Amarna names Amandi, Amanappa, Amanathabi, 
etc., with Book of Mormon Aminadi, Aminadab; 
also Ammuni-ra has the same relationship to 
Book of Mormon Ammoni-hah as the derived 
Amarna name Khamuni-ra has to Book of Mor- 
mon Cameni-hah. For Amarna names, J. A. 
Knudtzon, Die El-Amarna-Tafeln (Leipzig, 

1915), Vol. 2, p. 1557. For the various vocal- 
izations of Amon, as Amen- Amun-, etc., Gardi- 
ner, Egyptian Grammar, p. 431. Compare also 
Book of Momon Helaman with Egyptian Her- 
amon (Egyptian always writes "r" for Semitic 

i l Moret, op. cit., Vol. 2, p. 658, and passim, 
is very insistent on this point; Hall, Cambridge 
Ancient History, Vol. 3, p. 280: Egypt (in the 
seventh century) "never ceased to claim the 
west lands as an ancient dominion," regarding 
Hittites and Assyrians as mere interlopers. 

12 Moret, op. cit., Vol. 2, pp. 437-39, 567ff; 
W. Wolf, "Vorlaeufer der Reformation Echna- 
tons," Aeg. Ztschr., Vol. 59 (1924), pp. 109- 
19; Hans Bonnet, "Zum Verstaendnisdes Syji 
kretismus," Aeg. Ztschr., Vol. 75 (1939), pp. 

13 Winlock, JNES, Vol. 2, p. 250; Moret, pp. 
209, 436. 

14 Breasted, Ancient Records, Vol. 3, p. 27; 
cf. Hall, op. cit., Vol. 3, p. 294. 

15 Moret, op. cit., Vol. 2, pp. 610ff; 3 Ne. 

10 A striking parallel to the Book of Mormon 
account is that given by Hall, Vol. 3, p. 254; 
Moret, p. 590. 

17 W. F. Albright, The Vocalization of Egyp- 
tian Syllabic Orthography ( New Haven, Am. 
Or. Soc, 1934, deals with the problem of 
"reformed" Egyptian. The author suggests, pp. 
lOff, that a "new orthography was devised in 
the 'foreign office' of the Egyptian chancellery 
during the twentieth century" specifically for 
dealing with Palestine and Syria, since the 
scribes "found it necessary to devise an orthog- 
raphy which would enable them to read theii 
own records." From this time on the new idiom 
underwent progressive and constant deterioration 
until, by the seventh century B. C. among other 
things "an almost complete shift in the quality 
of Egyptian vowels" had taken place. 

18 Knudtzon, Amarna-Tafeln, 117, 123, 132, 

10 Id. 1222. The name seems to have been 
both a personal proper name and the designa- 
tion of an office (cf. Hem above), Knudtzon, 

20 Thus Kishkumen (3 Ne. 9:10), cf. Kumen, 
Kumen-onhi; Albright, op. cit., pp. 44, 58. 

21 See accompanying cut, which may be 

found in Budge, op. cit., pp. 103, 108, and in 
W. M. F. Petrie, A History of Egypt (London, 
1905), Vol. 3, pp. 202, 290, the latter giving 
phonetic values "Piankh" and "Pankhy" re- 
spectively. Paanchi is settled as the correct 
reading, however, by the principle stated in 
Gardiner, e.g., Gram., p. 521: the "i" as here 
occurring "is always final consonant." 

22 Lists of priest-kings in the original form 
♦may be found in Aeg. Ztschr., Vol. 20 (1882), 

Taf. ii., V (7a); Budge, Mummy, p. 103. 

23 Hall, CAH, Vol. 3, p. 273. 

2 1 The Assyrian Text (British Museum Cyl. 
No. 12168 is given in L. W. King, First Steps 
in Assyrian, pp. 78ff. 

25 The name in its various form is discussed 
in W. Spiegelberg, "Der Stratege Pamenches," 
Aeg. Ztschr, Vol. 57 (1922), pp. 88-92. An 
even closer parallel is provided by Amarna 
Pa-kha-am-na-ta, given with variants in Knudt- 
son, Am. Taf, II, 1566, he was governor of 
Amurru under Egypt. 

20 Id., p. 89, note 2. 

27 Nos. 7 and 9 in Spiegelberg's list, p. 91. 

28 Spiegelberg, op. cit., p. 91. 

29 Winlock, JNES, p. 275, finds Egyptian 
commoners at Thebes with names Hesem, Hesi. 

30 Harold Lundstrom, Era, February 1948, 
p. 85. 

Spoken Word 

October 5, 1969 

Take time for your children 

By Richard L. Evans 
\ A / e "shall not pass again this way" — and in these swift-passing 

\/\/ scenes and seasons there seems to come — insistently, almost 
V Vabove all else — this compelling cry: Take time for your children. 
More and more, professional people are telling us that children are 
shaped and molded at a very early age— so early that it is a sobering 
fact to face. Home, parents, early impressions set the pattern for the 
future — and the evidence is overwhelming that nothing in this world 
is ever going to take the place of wholesome, happy homes. And there 
is more to this than food, shelter, and physical sustenance. There is the 
shaping of attitudes, of minds, of morals; opening avenues of interest 
and activity; instilling honesty, respect, reverence; prayers at a mother's 
knee; correction with fairness and firmness, "showing forth afterwards 
an increase of love" 1 and kindness. All this we cannot be, all this 
we cannot do, by not being there, by living separate lives, by an over- 
absorption in outside interests. Take time for your children. They are 
so soon grown, so soon gone. "Is mother home?" "Where is mother?" 
are the questions asked when they come home from anywhere. Oh, let 
them have the blessing of your beirig there. Take time for open arms; 
for talking, for reading, for family prayer: for home evenings and hours. 
As one discerning poet put it: "Richer than I you can never be — I had a 
mother who read to me." 2 Take time for making memories; for fixing 
sure foundations that will last long after less essential things are far 
forgotten. Mothers need to be home. A mother, a father waiting is a 
source of safety and assurance. Parents need to give their children whole- 
someness and wholeness by the very lives they live. Oh, the blessedness 
of coming home and finding mother there, with love and kindness and 
encouragement. Life goes quickly. Don't brush them off and turn them 
over to others. Take time for your children — before they're grown, be- 
fore they're gone. Oh, take time for your children. 

'D&C 121:43. 

2 Strickland Gillilan, The Reading Mother. 

Era, November 1970 125 

End of an Era 

in the Era 

An intelligent farmer has 
discovered that by planting 
onions and potatoes in 
the same field in alternate 
rows the onions become 
so strong that they bring 
tears to the eyes of the 
potatoes in such volume that 
the roots are kept moist 
and a big crop is raised 
in spite of the drought. 

Mr. Hopeful: "I'm quite a near 

neighbor of yours now. 

I've taken a house by the river.' 

Miss Golightly: "Oh, I hope 

you'll drop in someday." 


The following conversation 
took place in a certain 
well-known college: "You are the 
greatest dunce I ever met up 
with," said the professor. 
"Now, I don't believe that you 
could repeat to me two 
texts of scripture correctly." 
"Yes, I can." "Well, do it." 
The student, with much 
feeling and thoughtful 
consideration, said: "He 
departed and went and hanged 
himself." Here he paused, 
then continued: "Go thou 
and do likewise." (1902) 

"How soon shall I know 
anything after I come out of 
the anesthetic?" "Well, that's 
expecting a lot from an 
anesthetic." (1936) 

I rose and gave her my seat — 
I could not let her stand. 
She made me think of Mother 
With that strap held in her hand. 

Mr. Jones: "I have a great idea 
for improving the taste of salt." 
Mrs. Jones: "What is it?" 
Mr. Jones: "Sprinkle it on a big, 
juicy steak." (1945) 

Bill Jones stopped in at a 

pet store and was entranced 

by a remarkable bird 

that was not only beautiful to 

look at but also spoke in 

eight languages. He 

paid a good round sum for the 

bird and asked to have 

it delivered to his house. 

Reaching home at dinnertime 

that evening, he asked, 

"Has the bird come?" 

"Yes, dear," his wife replied. 

"It's in the oven now." 

"What!" he exclaimed. "In the 

oven? Why, that bird could 

speak in eight languages." 

"So?" asked the unperturbed 

wife. "Then why didn't he 

say something?" (1950) 

A Sunday School teacher, 
having read during the week 
that there are 3,566,480 
letters in the Bible, 
put the question to his class 
of teenage boys on 
Sunday. The first answer 
he received was 3,000,533. 
"Is that right?" he asked, 
pursuing the question. 
"No, " came a voice from the 
back of the room. "Will 
you please tell us 
how many there are, then?" 
The answer came with 
clarity. "Twenty-six 
letters, sir. Just 
twenty-six letters." 

Life Among 

In our early morning 
seminary class, our teacher 
asked for a show of 
hands how many 
had ancestors who had 
crossed the plains. 
Several hands shot up, 
including that of a Lamanite 
boy of the Cheyenne tribe. 
Aloud he added, 
"Many times!" 

— Basin City Ward Seminary 
(Junior Group), Mesa, 
Washington (1970) 


ft nft%wffi 






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The Era 

Marion D. Hanks, Editor 
Elaine Cannon, Associate Editor 
November 1970 

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EfQ Of m 


YouWi ^ 

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For ten years the Era of Youth has gone out across the Church monthly 
as an integral part of the Improvement Era. It has been an honor and 
a matter of gentle pride for us to be associated with such a great 
magazine. It has been an honor to prepare and send to the people of 
the Church for the benefit of the youth of the Church the choice and 
challenging materials published in the Era of Youth. We are deeply 
grateful to have had that privilege. Your response has been rewarding. 

Now a new and long hoped-for development is occurring: beginning in 
January 1971 youth and young adult singles of the Church will have a 
magazine of their own — a full-scale, personal, special magazine exclusively 
for them. God bless the enterprise. 

For this month's Era of Youth (the last issue except for December's 
Christmas special), we've selected a few choice materials out of 
hundreds of fine ones we've published as a kind of summation and farewell. 
We pray you'll enjoy them. 

God bless the young people of the Church! We've been so respectful of 
you and your rich lives. Stay as great as you are — and keep on growing. 

-The Editors 


Editors' note: 

Having been caught in that proverbial 
tug-o'-war, have you been pulled to 
the wrong side? Here's the way back. 

January 1966 

The Importance 
of Being Alma 

• Alma, known as "the younger" because he bore 
the same name as his father who was chief high 
priest or president of the church, in company with 
four sons of King Mosiah, secretly sought to destroy 
y) the church by the use of "much flattery" and "many 
words." The record refers to them as "the very 
vilest of sinners" (Mosiah 28:4), and Alma as "a 
very wicked and an idolatrous man" (Mosiah 27:8). 

While thus occupied, Alma received a miraculous 
visit. An angel of the Lord appeared to him, explain- 
ing that his presence was an answer to the faith, the 
fasting, and the prayers of Alma's father. The angel 
told Alma that unless he stopped his deliberate 
effort to destroy the Lord's work, he would be de- 
stroyed himself. 

During the next three days and nights, Alma suf- 
fered the torments of the damned. He recounted 
the experience to his son Helaman in later years: 

... as I was thus racked with torment, while I was 
harrowed up by the memory of my many sins, behold, I 
remembered also to have heard my father prophesy unto 
the people concerning the coming of one Jesus Christ, a 
Son of God, to atone for the sins of the world. 

Now, as my mind caught hold upon this thought, I cried 
within my heart: Jesus, thou Son of God, have mercy 
on me, who am in the gall of bitterness, and am encircled 
about by the everlasting chains of death. 

And now, behold, when I thought this, I could remember 
my pains no more; yea, I was harrowed up by the memory 
of my sins no more. 

And oh, what joy, and what marvelous light I did behold; 
yea, my soul was filled with joy as exceeding as was my 

Yea, I say unto you, my son, that there could be nothing 


so exquisite and so bitter as were my pains. Yea, and 
again I say unto you, my son, that on the other hand, there 
can be nothing so exquisite and sweet as was my joy. 
(Al. 36:17-21.) 

A father's faith and prayers inspired a son's con- 

And Alma, the younger — what happened to him? 

He became the president of the church, succeed- 
ing his father. He also became the chief judge, the 
highest elective office of his people. 


So, from Alma, the - younger, we learn that the 
result of true repentance is not, in God's eyes, like 

— a board into which a nail has been driven, then 
withdrawn, but leaving a hole; 

— a bird with broken wing, now mended, which 
can never again fly so high; 

— a train derailed, back again on the track, but 
never able to make the distance it might have 

God has taught us, through the prophets, that 





Alma repented, and God forgave him. He became 
the chief high priest, the Lord's anointed. He 
learned obedience and fulfilled his full potential— 
in this life. 

That's the importance of being Alma. 


Era, November 1970 129 

me 1962 



By Marion D. Hanks 

"Abide ye in the liberty wherewith ye are made free; 
entangle not yourselves in sin, but let your hands be 
clean, until the Lord comes." (D&C 88:86.) 

• "Look, it's my life, and I'm going to live it. This is 
a free country, you know, and I'm a free man. What 
I do is my business and not the business of anyone 

The youngster said it with a snarl and a sneer 
and with an intensity that made even the experienced 
counselor's blood run cold. He tried to talk with 
the boy about a "free country" and "free men" and 
whose business his serious moral misconduct really 
is. But the young visitor would have none of it. He 
was very sure of himself. He was "free" and in- 
tended to prove it by doing just what he pleased. This 
to him was freedom: doing just what he pleased, 
without thought or reference to anyone else. 

When he had gone the counselor mused for a time 
about freedom. 

Have you? Have you thought seriously about 

Ask yourself, what is freedom? 

How can it be obtained, and protected? 

Who has it? 

Is it the product of money, education, social 
prominence, political power, position? 

What Is Freedom? 

Usually we think of freedom as absence of re- 
straint on person or property or expression. We are 
"free" when we are outside prison walls, or out of 
debt, or are able to acquire and dispose of property, 
to manage our lives, or to meet together without 
limitation. Often we speak of freedom as the right 
and responsibility to make decisions — free agency. 
These precious "freedoms" the boy in the coun- 
selor's office is fortunate enough to enjoy. But there 
is a kind of freedom he does not have and does not 
understand, that has no political boundaries and 
nothing to do with dungeons or cells or lack of bread 
or opportunity. Sometimes it has burned particularly 
bright under just such conditions. It is the product 
of free agency properly used. It is the freedom 
spoken of by Jesus when he said, 

". . . If ye continue in my word, then are ye my 
disciples indeed; 

"And ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall 
make you free. 

"They answered him, We be Abraham's seed, and 
were never in bondage to any man: how sayest thou, 
Ye shall be made free? 


"Jesus answered them, Verily, verily, I say unto 
you, Whosoever committeth sin is the servant of sin. 

"If the Son therefore shall make you free, ye shall 
be free indeed." (John 8:31-34, 36.) 

Freedom is a condition of mastery over ignorance, 
unbelief, disobedience, unrighteousness. He who 
escapes the bondage of sin is free. 

How Is Freedom Obtained? 

It is a gift of God through his Son to all who will 
receive it . . . 
— by learning truth. 

"And I will walk at liberty: for I seek thy precepts." 
(Ps. 119:45.) 
— by obeying the law. 

"I, the Lord God, make you free, therefore ye are 
free indeed; and the law also maketh you free." 
(D&C 98:8.) 
— by accepting Christ. 

"And under this head [Christ's] ye are made free, 
and there is no other head whereby ye can be made 
free. . . ." (Mosiah 5:8.) 
— by serving him faithfully. 

"But whoso looketh into the perfect law of liberty, 
and continueth therein, he being not a forgetful 
hearer, but a doer of the work, this man shall be 
blessed in his deed." (Jas. 1:25.) 
— by so living that we may have the Spirit of the 

". . . where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is lib- 
erty." (2 Cor. 3:17.) 

How Is Freedom Lost? 

— by uncleanness, unrighteousness, sin. 

"Abide ye in the liberty wherewith ye are made 
free; entangle not yourselves in sin, but let your 
hands be clean, until the Lord comes." (D&C 88:86.) 

"For if after they have escaped the pollutions of 
the world through the knowledge of the Lord and 
Savior Jesus Christ, they are again entangled therein, 
and overcome, the latter end is worse with them than 
the beginning. 

"For it had been better for them not to have 
known the way of righteousness, than, after they 
have known it, to turn from the holy commandment 
delivered unto them." (2 Pet. 2:20-21.) 
— by following bad counsel, being with foolish com- 

"The Lord knoweth how to deliver the godly out of 
temptations, and to reserve the unjust unto the day 
of judgment to be punished: 

"But chiefly them that walk after the flesh in the 

lust of uncleanness, and despise government. Pre- 
sumptuous are they, selfwilled, they are not afraid 
to speak evil of dignities. 

"[They] speak evil of the things that they under- 
stand not; and shall utterly perish in their own 

"Having eyes full of adultery, and that cannot 
cease from sin; beguiling unstable souls . . . 

"Which have forsaken the right way, and are gone 
astray. . . . 

"These are wells without water, clouds that are 
carried with a tempest; to whom the mist of dark- 
ness is reserved for ever. 

"For when they speak great swelling words of 
vanity, they allure through the lusts of the flesh, 
through much wantonness, those that were clean 
escaped from them who live in error. 

"While they promise them liberty, they themselves 
are the servants of corruption: for of whom a man 
is overcome, of the same is he brought in bondage." 
(2 Pet. 2:9-10, 12, 14-15, 17-19. Italics added.) 

What Is Freedom Worth? 

It is worth everything: every effort, every devotion, 
every sacrifice, every service. It is worth life itself, 
because it gives meaning to life. Eternal life with 
our Father in heaven will come to those who are 
free, finally, from ignorance, unbelief, disobedience, 

Who Is Free? 

Those who learn the law of God, who know the 
truth, and follow after it. Those who truly love and 
will not hate. 

He who is loyal and patient and forgiving. The girl 
who lives with happy memories and self-respect. 
The boy who passes the sacrament, or administers 
it, with clean hands and an honest heart. The young 
people who refuse to trifle with bad habits, to cheat 
in school, to keep bad company. They who know 
that freedom has a twin named responsibility. Indi- 
viduals who can respect themselves and who rever- 
ence God. 

These are truly free. They know a freedom that 
the careless or dishonest or wilfully disobedient never 
know. They are free to look others in the eye, to 
accept the pay or grades they have earned, to think 
without destructive memories, to live with clear 
conscience, to serve God in the temple or the mis- 
sion field. 

They are free to walk humbly and with confidence 
in the holy presence of God. o 

Era, November 1970 131 













































































CO co ■» 



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SO «1> 






September 1960 

I have been called a student of science. But I am also 
one who loves the gospel of Jesus Christ. For me there has 
been no serious difficulty in reconciling the principles of 
true science with the principles of true religion, for both are 
concerned with the eternal verities. 

True religion is not a narrow thing. True religion con- 
cerns man and the en- 
tire universe in which 
he lives. It concerns his 
relationships with him- 
self and his fellow men, 
with his environment, 
and with God his Cre- 
ator. It is therefore 
limitless, and as bound- 
less as that eternity 
which it teaches lies 
ahead of every son of 
God. "Be ye therefore 
perfect, even as your 
Father which is in 
heaven is perfect." 
(Matt. 5:48.) What a 
challenge to every man 
lies in these words from 
the Master, to develop 
himself, to strive, to 
learn, to seek, to go for- 
ward that he might be- 
come as God! 

In times of uncertainty such as the present the increas- 
ing effort to understand man's place in the grand scheme of 
things proceeds at an accelerated pace. That understanding 
is a problem not alone for the laboratory; many of its an- 
swers will be found in the realm of the spiritual. 

I would like to suggest to youth who may feel inclined 
to disparage religion as they pursue other studies, that they 
will bring enrichment to their lives by cultivating faith and 
an interest in things of the spirit as they follow their other 
pursuits. Such faith will never detract from their abilities 
in other fields, but it will broaden their thinking and give 
added depth to their character. 

I believe that many of our young people have impover- 
ished their lives by a thoughtless denial of the faith of their 
fathers in their desire to be what they call scientific and 

Most scientists, I believe, would not presume to say that 
a thing may not be because they do not understand it, nor 
would they deny the validity of spiritual experiences of 
others because they have been without such experiences 

The restored gospel teaches that certain things are 
known by revelation and by study, but much more remains to 
be learned. God in his wisdom will reveal more as the need 
arises. We are engaged in a never-ending program of eternal 

The scientific method which has served so brilliantly in 
unraveling the mysteries of this world must be supplemented 
by something else if we are to enjoy to the fullest the bless- 
ings that have come of the knowledge gained. It is the great 
mission and opportunity of religion to teach men "the way, 
the truth, the life," that they might utilize the discoveries of 
the laboratory to their blessing and not to their destruction. 
There is need for added spirituality, of the kind that leads 
to brotherhood, to go hand in hand with the scientific 
progress of our time. 

When I left home to go to college, my father said to me, 

"Son, I have never intentionally told you an untruth. 
You must never believe anything that isn't true, no matter 
who tells it to you. 

"Now, I believe the gospel is the truth. It is not a fragile 
thing and will bear searching examination. 

"Remember to be clean. Never profane the name of God. 
Always live so that you will be comfortable in the company 
of good people. Search for truth diligently and prayerfully. 
I know you will be all right." 

The Lord himself outlined the procedure for discovering 
religious 'truth when he said: "If any man will do his will, 
he shall know of the doctrine, whether it be of God, or 
whether I speak of myself." (John 7:17.) 

Contemplating the awe-inspiring order in the universe, 
extending from the almost infinitely small to the infinitely 
large, one is overwhelmed with its grandeur and with the 
limitless wisdom which conceived, created, and governs it 
all. Our understanding, great as it sometimes seems, can be 
nothing but the wide-eyed wonder of the child when meas- 
ured against Omniscience. 

We learned from the Prophet Joseph that man lived be- 
fore he was born ; that life is a school where man is sent to 
learn the things the Lord intends ; and that he continues on 
into life after death. Death is not the end; it is but one more 
step in a great forward march made possible by the re- 
demption wrought by the Savior. This is the spirit of true 
science : constant and eternal seeking. 

God grant that in seeking the mysteries of his handi- 
work, we may also learn his great religious truths (which we 
have been prone to disregard) that our efforts might become 
a blessing unto us. 

How to 



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about it? e you ««m» to „., 

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£* pCCtnlt h8 ' and <* 

January 1968 

You must, you know. Here are 
five ways that work. 

1. Make up your mind ahead 
of time. 

Consider WHY you have the 
standards you do. Go deeper 
than merely saying, "Because 
I'm a Mormon." Why do Mor- 
mons feel as they do? Consider 
what comes next if you should 
succumb to the wrong kind of 
social pressure. 

2. Have ready answers. 
Think up clever, interesting, 

fun but firm things to reply 
when given an offer to lower 
your standards in any way. "My 
computer says NO." "But I 
might break out in a terrible 
rash !" ". . . and get grounded 
for a week?" "Does a pay raise 
come with it?" 

.'}. Act with confidence. 

You may be nervous or em- 
barrassed or even frightened, 
but don't let it show. Don't hesi- 
tate. Just remember, everyone 
is NOT smoking or racing or 
petting or cheating. . . . YOU 
are not! 

4. Change the subject. 

Refuse to take such a stupid 
offer seriously. Quickly move on 
to another subject. Begin by 
asking, "In how many languages 
can you sing 'Silent Night'?" 
"What do you know about the 

No matter how «,„ u 
arp . , aow much you 

Remember that vonr w , ' 

agam the inspiring scripture in 

tX e nI,7 6:13 - 17: "therefor" 
of God nt t °„r ^ Wh ° ,e ""our 

£&K tne-eVV^- 
ha "f do »* aft to stan7' and 

havin^on ?hf V* trUth ' and 

Prep A ar a d tf„° n Ur o f ; et th S e hod ""« the 
peace; the goa M of 

- '^r^r th \ shiew 

ableto,uen c nUt h /f. Shai,be 
ofthewicked ' f ' erydarts 

\God." ^ the Wor d of 

of his not-so-glorious career as 
a high school quarterback. Al- 
though he made the team, the 
truth was soon evident, and mid- 
season found him the fourth of 
four at that position. By season's 
end, he had given up. During the 
final game he pulled off his shoes, 
wrapped himself in a blanket, and 
settled down to watch his buddies 

Then it came. 

"Hey, you! Get in there and 
move the ball!" 

The sound almost stunted his 
growth. What should he do? His 
first impulse was to say "Wait, 
coach, while I put on my shoes." 
The next two possibilities were 
either to pretend he didn't hear 
or to lapse into a coma. He did 
the only manly thing. Strapping on 
his helmet as he ran, he made 
straight for the huddle, his 
stockinged feet conspicuously evi- 
dent. Amid unbelieving team- 
mates he called a play. But the 
shock of his first game was a 
little disconcerting, and as he 
took the snap from center, it 
dawned on him that he had for- 
gotten which play he called. As 
his defense moved to the right, 
he nimbly went left and met the 
world of opposition head on and 

was swallowed up in the snarl of 
opposing linemen. 

Though the story goes on to 
something of a happy ending, my 
friend takes the occasion to teach 

September 1969 

what has become a great lesson 
to me. He said, "No one expected 
me to make a touchdown. Even 
running the wrong way was un- 
derstandable. But there was no 
excuse for a quarterback without 

In one of the revelations con- 
tained in the Doctrine and Cove- 
nants, Oliver Cowdery was told 
that he was to be granted the gift 
of translation. (D&C 6:25.) 

But here, in a far more serious 
contest, was another quarterback 
without shoes. He wasn't as ready 
as he had once been. His belief 
in himself and his cause had fal- 
tered, and though he cried, "Wait 
while I get ready!" he learned that 
eternal work can seldom wait. To 

Oliver the Lord had to reply, 
"Because you did not continue as 
you commenced ... I have taken 
away this privilege. . . . You 
feared, and the time is past, and 
it is not expedient now." (See 
D&C 9:5, 11.) The opportunity 
of a lifetime had not been seized 
during the lifetime of the oppor- 
tunity, and it was gone forever. 

Young people of the Church, 
there is a great growth ahead for 
you. There is permanent, peace- 
ful joy to be felt. Be faithful. Be 
ready. Believe in the battle, and 
be willing to serve. To all who 
will hear, the angel is saying what 
he said long ago to Peter: "Arise 
. . . bind on thy sandals . . . 
follow me." (See Acts 12:7-8.) 



j j fc f f ll 

By Loye Wright 

' 3#vS" 


. in Goci / have 

put my trust; I will not fear what 
flesh can do unto me." 

(Ps. 56:4.) 
• What were you doing on the afternoon of June was the bloody disaster that resulted when the 

10, 1963? Probably you don't remember. But big truck crashed backwards off a cliff, bearing 

August 1967 

Ron Clark does. In fact, he will never forget. He 
was lying pinned beneath a two-ton cattle truck 
at the bottom of a desert wash. Beside him were 
several of his best friends — dead. Around him 

'■'< Illustrated by Sherry Thompson 

the precious burden of 45 people. Now 12 of those 
45 were dead. Twenty more were injured. Ron 
himself was trapped near the front of the heavy- 
vehicle where the greatest weight was. His jaw 
had been severely knocked out of joint when the 
truck went over, and his left leg was crushed 
under the truck. 

As soon as he could pull his arms and right leg 
free, Ron set his jaw himself as best he could 
amid all the crying and screaming of the hurt 
passengers. The unhurt MIA superintendent who 
had been accompanying the group of Scouts, for 
whom this trip was to have been a super activity, 
was making the rounds, checking the extent of 
the damage. When he reached Ron he asked him 
how badly he was hurt. The young man tipped 
his head back. 

"Charlie," his voice trembled, "I've lost my 
leg." He couldn't feel a bit of life in his left leg, 
and terrible visions of the future raced through 
his mind. But despite the pain and worry, it was 
Ron who kept telling the others, "It's all right. 
They're going to get us out of here." 

Ron was the last one pulled from the wreckage. 
Soon after he was taken to the Panguitch Hos- 
pital, his family arrived from Provo. 

"I'm all right, Mother," he had said. 

This 16-year-old Explorer showed remarkable 
courage. And a few days later he was called upon 
to show perhaps even greater valor. 

He was sent home, where he had to be fed 
through a straw because he could not move his 
badly swollen jaw. He could hardly speak. He 
couldn't sing. For Ron that was very serious. 
All during his life he had brought a great deal 
of beauty and pleasure into the lives of those who 
had heard his incomparable voice. When he was 
only 12 years old, he sang his way into the hearts 
of those at general conference who heard his love- 
ly renditions of "Listen, Dear Teacher" and 
"When He Comes Again." Only a year ago he 
had sung in a chorus at stake conference. His 
friends had sung with him then — the same ones 
who helped plan the trip to Southern Utah. 

He remembered how happy they all had been: 
Randy Miller, Lynn Merrell, Gary Christensen, 
Gary Rasmussen, Joe Erickson, and Gordon Grow 
— all good friends. Those were happy days. Ahead 
of him now was Gordon's funeral and, the next 
day, the joint funeral for five of his closest pals. 
Ron could only get around a little with the aid 
of crutches when the stake - president, Ben E. 
Lewis, called on him. 

"Ronnie," he had said, "the families want you 

to sing at the funeral services." 

How could he? His jaw was too badly swollen 
for movement. Besides . . . these were five very 
special guys. 

"You can do it," President Lewis promised, "if 
you will pray, and if you really want r to." 

He really wanted to. The next few days were 
filled with prayer. He knew only the Lord could 
help him accomplish this incredible task. 

The morning of the funeral he couldn't eat; 
the jaw was rigid, and *he spoke through closed 
teeth. Practicing beforehand was a fiasco. With 
those clenched teeth he could get no resonance 
or carrying power. But he had given his word. 

His earnest prayers continued right up to the 
time he sat with his brother Bob in the choir loft 
of the old Provo Tabernacle. 

Then suddenly, minutes before he was to sing, 
an overwhelmingly peaceful feeling settled on 
him, and Ron turned to his brother. "I can move 
my jaw!" he whispered. "It feels all right!" 

He picked up his crutches, limped over to the 
organ, and with a faint smile nodded to organist 
Byron Jensen. The young Explorer stood up tall 
and looked below at the flower-covered caskets 
bearing the bodies of five of the friends he had 
buddied with practically all his life. How could he 

His voice rose, beautiful and pure. "May the 
good Lord bless and keep you. . . ." The unwaver- 
ing notes filled the tabernacle and soared to hea- 
ven on the summer breeze. "Fill your dreams with 
sweet tomorrows. Never mind what might have 
been. . . ." The melody was strong until the last, 
but then ... he couldn't go on. He faltered, then 
whispered, ". . . till we meet again."* 

Tears coursed down the faces of the fifteen 
hundred sobbing people gathered in the taber- 
nacle — tears shed not only for the five boys who 
had been taken, but tears also for the courage of 
a young Explorer with a puffy jaw. 

As for that jaw — immediately after the song, 
it locked shut again, and weeks passed before Ron 
could open it. 

Nobody can tell Ron that miracles don't happen. 
He's had a few close calls since then, too, but he's 
now living the dream of his life — a mission, in 
the Eastern Atlantic States. But miracles don't 
happen all by themselves. It takes real faith, 
sincere prayers, and a lot of personal effort. In 
this case, all were supplied in abundance by a 
very strong young man. O 

*"May the Good Lord Bless and Keep You," words 
and music by Meredith Willson. 

Era, November 1970 139 

Christmas is for sharing 

I knew that Homer had wanted canyon boots for as long 
as I could remember. He was eleven and I ten, and we 
had spent many nights under the blue quilts at the cabin 
talking about how great it would be to have some real boots 
— boots that would climb through thorny bushes, that would 
ward off rattlesnakes, that would nudge the ribs of the 
pony; we had planned the kind of leather they should be 
and what kind of decoration they should have. 

But we both knew it was just talk. The depression had 
been hard on Father's business, and even shoes for school 
were usually half-soled hand-me-downs. 

Christmas that year had promised as always to be excit- 
ing, though mainly because of the handmade things we'd 
worked on in school for our parents. We never had money 
to spend on each other, but we had caught early in our lives 
a sort of contagion from our mother. She loved to give, and 
her anticipation of the joy that a just-right gift would bring 
to someone infected our whole household. We were swept 
up in breathless waiting to see how others would like what 
we had to give. Secrecy ruled — open, exaggerated secrecy, as 
we made and hid our gifts. The only one whose hiding place 
we never discovered was my Grandmother's. Her gifts 
seemed to materialize by magic on Christmas morning and 
were always more expensive than they should have been. 

That Christmas I was glowing because Mother had been 
so happy with the parchment lamp shade I'd made in the 
fourth grade, and Father had raved over the clay jewelry 
case I had molded and baked for him. Gill and Emma Lou 
had been pleased with the figures I'd whittled out of clothes- 
pins, and Homer had liked the Scout pin I'd bargained 
for with my flint. Then Grandma started to pass out her 

Mine was heavy and square. I'd been -in the hospital that 
year and then on crutches, and I'd wondered how it would 
be to have an Erector set to build with. Grandma had a 
knack at reading boys' minds, and I was sure that's what it 
was. But it wasn't. It was a pair of boots, brown tangy- 
smelling leather boots. 

I looked quickly to Homer's package. His was a sweater. 
He'd needed one all fall. I wanted to cover my box before he 
saw what it was. I didn't want the boots ; they should have 
been his. He came toward me, asking to see, and I started 
to say, "I'm sorry, bruv." 

But he was grinning. And he shouted, "Hey, everybody — 
look what Richard's got." He swooped the boots out of the 
box, fondled them like treasure, and then sat on the floor at 
my feet to take off my half-soled shoes and put on the 
brand new boots. 

I don't remember how the boots felt, nor even how they 
looked. But Christmas rang in my soul because my brother 
was glad for me. 



December 1964 




* '*Uy 

An African Adventure 

by Rendell N, Ma bey 

President, Swiss Mission 

i N MY life I have had the 
great blessing of traveling 
widely over the face of the 
earth, including several safaris 
and a number of visits in 

Once in Northern Rhodesia 
i now known as Zambia) I met 
the chief of police of the city 
of Lusaka, who had learned 
that I was interested in col- 
lecting a roan antelope. He 
arranged to take us in several 
jeeps to a ranch about 100 
miles away where we might 
find a roan. 

"Is Salt Lake City beauti- 
ful?" she asked. 

"It is a very beautiful -city," 
I replied. 

She said, "Have you ever 
seen, the Mormon temple?" 

"I walk by the temple al- 
most every day," I said. 

She asked, "Have you ever 
been in the temple?" 

"Yes," I answered. "I have 
been in the temple many 
times. 1 am a Mormon bishop." 

Tears filled her eyes. She 
arose, ran into her bedroom, 
and returned shortly with a 

It was a hot, dusty, sultry day, and the going book wrapped up in a silk scarf. It was a Book 
was very difficult on the poor roads. Toward eve- of Mormon. She told me that many years ago 

ning, still a short distance from the ranch house 
where we were heading, our jeep broke down. The 
young ranch foreman came to help us, and we 
arrived safely, to be greeted at the ranch house by 
his young bride who immediately offered us a wel- 
come drink, "We have anything you want except 
water," she said with a smile. "Water is very dan- 
gerous to drink out here unless it is thoroughly 
boiled." '"I'd prefer an orangeade," I said. 

By noon the next day wo had a fine roan antelope. 
After a lovely meal prepared by the young lady of 
the house. 1 sat alone with her at the table, talking. 
She said, "Mr. Mabev. where did you say you are 

"I am from Utah, but most people in Africa don't 
know where Utah is located. Utah is some 700 miles 
inland from California." 

"Yes, 1 know," she said. "What part of Utah are 
you from?" 

"Salt Lake Citv." 

when she was a little girl in Capetown, South 
Africa, her mother had studied with the mission- 
aries but had not joined the Church. The young 
lady, however, later did. After her marriage to a 
New Zealander she had moved to this ranch. She 
had not seen a member of the Church for a long, 
long time, and she was overjoyed that I had 

There we were — the only two Mormons within 
a thousand miles— and we had met on an isolated 
ranch in the darkest part of Africa. 

Once again I learned how important it is that 
we always live our religion. If one wanted to hide 
from his religion, I suppose he could not find a 
better place than in central Africa, and yet, there 
1 met a member of the Church. 

The world is not big enough for any member 
of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-da v Saints 


iind a place 

where he 

sponsibilities of his membership. 


March 1967 




Q. aSffof I 

August 1965 


roum h m*> 

f Cannon 

. . .and he who has eyes to see shall a 


There is beauty in all the places one 

peet— in Wordsworth's host of daffodil 

field's sea, in Emerson's pompon.- h 

Thoreau's winter animals, in Willi 

plains, in a!] thy orderly arrangement* 

and- God's universe, There is a certain 


in even the smallest part. 

There are some places where one 

might not 

expect beauty to be, but looking for it. 1 

t is found. 

after all! 

Youth have a corner on appreciating! 

..eauty, for 

they see with fresh eyes, uncluttered mi 

ads, eager 

hearts. But real richness in life conies W 

ben seeing 

beauty is more than merely recofrnizin 

being in the presence of beautv is an t 


This takes some conscious effort This I 

takes some 

cultivating-. And it is well worth work; 

iftg for. 

To be aware of beauty, wherever it if 

; found, to 

respond to it fully is to be enlivened. 

to be im- 

In Plato's HtfYAfXisiitm Diotima tell 

i derates 

that "one who has learned to see be&i 

fty in due 

order and succession, when tie conies t 

award the 

end will suddenly perceive a Baton of 


beauty . . , "beauty absolute, separate, i 

simple and 

everlasting." She goes on to describe tr 

ascent in appreciating beauty, It begin? 

beauties of earth, and mounts upwan 

sake of that other beauty," going fror 

u one fair 

form to "all fair forms, and from fail 

■ forms tu 

fair practises, a*;d from fair jwractia 

ea to fair 

notions, until from fair notions |we] ar 


notion of absolute beauty . . . which not 

ton h God. 

This, my dear Socrates," she says, ": 

is the life 

above ail others which mm should li 1 

. 7 e — m the 

contemplation of beauty absolute/* 

The pi;rp"^_- <:■:' this issue te to enc< 

jurage the 

search for the beautiful about us in all 

phases of 

life, to instil the idea among LBS yoi 

th that to 

settle for less than the highest idea! 

in books, 

music, clothes, entertainment, &xperien< 

*s, people 

is to shortchange the measure of life. "Vi 

"<?\-e gives 

you a quotation from Shakespeare to 

start the 

search. These are only a few lines, but 

take each 

phrase or idea separately and look wh 

ere it can 

lead you. What a rich unfolding! 

And 'this -our life, 
exempt from public haunt, 
Finds tongues in trees, 
books in the running brooks, 
Sermons in stones, 
and good in every thing, . 


' ■■■■■ ■■ ■ ■■■ ■■::■: 

There Is Beauty All Around 

. . . and he who has eyes to see shall see! 
By Elaine Cannon 

• There is beauty in all the places one would ex- 
pect — in Wordsworth's host of daffodils, in Mase- 
field's sea, in Emerson's sunsets and Thoreau's 
winter animals, in Willa Cather's plains, in all the 
orderly arrangements of nature and God's universe. 
There is a certain magnitude in even the smallest 

There are some places where one might not expect 
beauty to be, but looking for it, it is found, after all. 

Youth have a corner on appreciating beauty, for 
they see with fresh eyes, uncluttered minds, eager 
hearts. But real richness in life comes when seeing 
beauty is more than merely recognizing it, when 
being in the presence of beauty is an experience. 
This takes some conscious effort. This takes some 
cultivating. And it is well worth working for. 

To be aware of beauty, wherever it is found, to 
respond to it fully is to be enlivened, to be instantly 

pleased and weaned from all other interests for a 
moment. It is refining and uplifting and soul- 
strecching. It is a coming close to Christ. 

In Plato's Symposium, Diotima tells Socrates that 
"one who has learned to see beauty in due order and 
succession, when he comes toward the end will sud- 
denly perceive a nature of wondrous beauty . . . 
beauty absolute, separate, simple and everlasting." 
She goes on to describe the order of ascent in ap- 
preciating beauty. It begins with "the beauties of 
earth and mounts upwards for the sake of that other 
beauty," going from one fair form to "all fair forms, 
and from fair forms to fair practices, and from fair 
practices to fair notions, until from fair notions we 
arrive at the notion of absolute beauty . . . which 
notion is God. This, my dear Socrates," she says, 
"is the life above all others which man should live — 
in the contemplation of beauty absolute." O 



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